What is the latitude and longitude?
All, probably, at school came across, heard about such concepts as longitude and latitude.
Most often this happened in the lessons of geography.
So, both of these concepts denote an angle. Latitude is the angle between the equator, or rather its plane, and the line from this point; longitude This is the angle between the plane of the meridian passing through a given point and the plane of the zero meridian.
Longitudes from 0 to 180 to the east of that zero meridian are usually called eastern (they are usually called or considered positive), and to the west - western (they are also called negative).
Latitude and longitude are corners. Together they form the coordinates with which you can find the position of the object on a spherical surface, like the Earth.
Latitude is determined with respect to the equator. That is, the equator is the zero surface. Positive latitude is the northern latitude to + 90 degrees, and the negative is the southern latitude to - 90 degrees.
Longitude is defined in terms of meridians. There is a main meridian, from which begins from which the countdown of longitude begins - this is Greenwich. All meridians that are to the east are negative longitude to -180 gr., And those that are to the west are positive longitude up to + 180 gr.
Latitude and longitude are georhaphic coordinates, conditional lines on the surface of the globe.
Latitude is a conventional horizontal line (parallel), and longitude is vertical. The latitude reference point starts from the equator. This is the zero latitude. Latitudes extending from the equator to the North Pole are called North (north or N) from 0 to 90, from the equator to the South Pole - South (S or S).
The longitude reference point is the Greenwich Meridian. This is zero longitude. The longitude going from Greenwich to the east (towards Japan) is called Eastern Longitude (E or E), from Greenwich to the west (towards America) - West (W or W)
Each latitude and longitude is measured in degrees, each degree is divided into minutes, every minute into seconds. 1 degree = 60 minutes, 1 minute = 60 seconds. These are geometric and astronomical units of measurement.
Each degree, every minute and every second is equal to a certain distance, which changes as you approach the poles: the distance of each degree of latitude increases, and each degree of longitude decreases. At the poles all points of geographical coordinates converge, so there is only latitude (longitude is not): the North Pole is 9000? 00? Northern latitude, the South Pole is 9000? 00? Southern latitude.
Of course, everything will turn from the meaning of the word. After all, it can be the breadth of the soul and the longitude of the clothes. But, we take as a basis all the same geographical concepts. In order not to delve into specific and abstruse terminology, I will try to explain these concepts as simply as possible. After all, it is an accessible explanation that helps to memorize information for a long time. I remember when we were still at school, they told us to introduce ourselves as travelers on a ship. And in order to understand where our ship is, we need to learn how to calculate latitude and longitude. To understand your location in relation to the North and South Pole, we will need breadth.
Longitude is the two-cornered angle between the initial (Greenwich) meridian and the local meridian. Longitudes are counted from 0 to 180, from the Greenwich meridian. In general, longitude and latitude are the data necessary for determining points in space, in the plane, from geodetic latitude and longitude, a transition to flat coordinates in the Gauss-Mercator projection is performed to compose topographical plans of sections. Longitude and latitude are geodetic, astronomical, depending on whether what coordinate system are you considering
To determine some point of the earth's surface, use the longitude and latitude. The distance is the distance from a certain point to the equator, and the longitude is the distance to the zero point of the meridian, or the Greenwich distance. This distance is indicated in degrees, minutes and seconds.
Latitude and longitude are the coordinates by which you can locate an object on the surface of either our planet or some other celestial body. Longitude can be eastern or western. The latitude can be determined with the help of such devices as: gnomon is an ancient astronomical instrument and a sextant-measuring, navigational instrument.
To determine the latitude and longitude, modern satellite navigation systems, such as GPS and GLONASS, are used. Latitude and longitude are measured:
From school geography it is known that geographical coordinates are used to determine the position of Earth's points on an ellipsoid (ball). The initial planes in the system of geographic coordinates are the planes of the initial meridian and the equator, and the coordinates angular quantities: longitude and latitude of the point. The determination of the position of the point by means of latitudes and longitudes was introduced by Hipparchus in the second century. BC. e. Geographic latitude point is called angle between the plane of the equator and the normal (a sheer line) drawn from this point. Geographical Longitude points this dihedral angle between the plane of the initial (zero Greenwich) meridian and the plane of the meridian passing through the given point.
Longitude and latitude are the concepts used in the designation of geographic coordinates.
For example, say: the ship is at 35 degrees north latitude and 28 degrees east longitude.
How can this be understood?
To understand, take the globe, touch with your finger at any point of the equator. Then twist the globe, without removing the finger. Turning the globe, you change the position of the finger along the longitude.
In the city of Greenwich is the point where the longitude is zero degrees. This is the point through which the zero meridian passes.
All that is to the right of the map, this is called the eastern longitude, and everything that is to the left is western. You can say simply longitude, then the offset to the west or to the east will be determined by the sign of the angle. If the angle is negative, then the offset is to the west, and if the negative is to the east. What is the angle? The corner is the angle between the point A with the X-coordinates at the Greenwich and Y-level at the equatorial level, the O-point in the center of the planet and the B-point with the X-coordinates of the required point and Y at the equatorial level.
Latitude is about the same, only it is plotted vertically, that is, perpendicular to longitude. The fact that above the equator - the north latitude, and that below - the south. Or just the breadth, then downwards decrease the angle (negative angles), and upward increase.
Here is the diagram:
Latitude and longitude are purely geographical indicators that are familiar to all schoolchildren. Use the latitude and longitude to compose the coordinates of the location of an object.
And now in more detail separately on each concept:
1) This is what is meant by latitude:
2) This is what is meant by longitude: