examples of euphemisms that will not be pleasant to the interlocutor.
- Well, for example, do not puke, and show a snack.
- A good pearl of Putin is a woman with a low social responsibility = prostitute
- In documents, media reports, euphemisms are often used, changing the emotional color of the message. For example: Negro (American) #8594; African American, disabled #8594; a person with disabilities, persons with disabilities, other people (in some countries); prison #8594; places of deprivation of liberty, places not so remote. In the Soviet era, the word cosmopolitan and Zionist often served as a substitute for the words Jew or Jew. Recently, the expression of an authoritative businessman (authoritative businessman) is used by the press as a euphemism, when the author wants to transparently hint at the involvement of this person in criminal activity, but is afraid of claims and accusations of unsubstantiated evidence.
The names of low-prestige works also receive euphemisms: courier #8594; freight forwarder, secretary #8594; office manager, assistant, room cleaner #8594; cleaning manager. Such a renaming, leading to a large number of positions with the names of the manager, is characterized by a joke: a janitor, a manager for external ecology and a housekeeping elevator, a loader, a logistics manager.
A similar origin has the term person of Caucasian nationality, used to refer to persons of an indefinite ethnic group.
- EUPHEM # 152; ISM (from the Greek. Euphemia abstention from inappropriate words, virtue) is an indirect, relaxed, stylistically neutral word or expression used instead of harsh, coarse, non-tactful or violating the rules of decency. For example, full instead of fat.
The process of euphemization is characterized by the following: the evaluation of the speaking subject of speech as such, the direct designation of which can be qualified (in a given environment or by a concrete person) as rudeness, harshness, impropriety, and so on; the selection of speakers for such notations, which not only soften the way of expression, but also obscure the essence of the phenomenon. This is especially evident in the case of medical euphemisms, for example, neoplasm instead of swelling, pediculosis instead of lice.
Dependence of the use of euphemism on the context and on the conditions of speech: the more rigid the social control of the speech situation and the self-control of speech, the more likely the use of euphemisms, and vice versa.
The objectives of the euphemization of speech: first, the desire to avoid communicative discomfort (hearing-impaired instead of deaf, blind instead of blind, untruth instead of lie); secondly, the veiling of the essence of the concept, which is characteristic of the language of a totalitarian society (competent authorities, well-wisher (instead of a snitch), and third, an attempt to hide from others what the speaker wants to communicate only to a specific addressee.
The main themes of euphemism: some physiological processes and conditions; relations between the sexes; disease and death.
Language means used for euphemization: nouns with a common meaning, indicative and indefinite pronouns, borrowings, abbreviations and others.