characterize all him. featured beryllium
- Beryllium - n. -з. Me; Atomic 4
Be + 9, has 2 orbitals, 1 has 2 electrons, 2 also has 2.
in chem. compounds 2-valentine,
the highest oxide is BeO,
higher hydroxide - H2BeO2
- "... Bormen, with his eyes bulging, stannum, as if burying, Beryllium, beryllium, encouraged his Argentine and, leaning lower, strained through the teeth the words of the password ...."
- BERILLIUM (Latin Beryllium), Be, chemical element of group II of the periodic table, atomic number 4, atomic mass 9,01218; refers to alkaline earth metals.
The chemical symbol for Be is beryllium. In nature, there is only one stable nuclide 9Be. Electronic configuration of the beryllium atom 1s22s2. The atomic radius is 0,113 nm, the radius of the ion is Be2 + 0,034 nm. In the compounds exhibits only the degree of oxidation + 2 (valence II). The energies of successive ionization of the atom Be are equal to 9,3227 and 18,211 eV. Value of electronegativity by Pauling 1,57. In its free form silver-gray light metal.
Properties: metallic beryllium is characterized by high brittleness. The melting point is 1278C, the boiling point is about 2470C, the density is 1,816 kg / m3. Up to the temperature of 1277C, a-Be is stable (a hexagonal lattice of magnesium type (Mg), parameters a = 0,22855 nm, c = 0,35833 nm), at temperatures preceding the melting of a metal (1277-1288C) b-Be with a cubic lattice.
The chemical properties of beryllium are similar in many ways to the properties of magnesium (Mg) and, especially, aluminum (Al). The proximity of the properties of beryllium and aluminum is explained by the almost identical ratio of the charge of the cation to its radius for Be2 + and Al3 + ions.
In air, beryllium, like aluminum, is covered with an oxide film, which gives beryllium a matte color. The presence of an oxide film protects the metal from further destruction and causes its low chemical activity at room temperature.
When heated, beryllium burns in air to form oxide BeO, reacts with sulfur and nitrogen. With halogens, beryllium reacts at ordinary temperature or under mild heating, for example:
Be + Cl2 = WeCN2
All these reactions are accompanied by the release of a large amount of heat, since the strength of the crystal lattices of the resulting compounds (BeO, BeS, Be3N2, BeCN2, etc.) is quite large.
Due to the formation of a strong oxide film on the surface, beryllium does not react with water, although it is in the series of standard potentials much to the left of hydrogen. Like aluminum, beryllium reacts with acids and alkali solutions:
Be + 2HCl = BeCl2 + H2,
Be + 2NaOH + 2H2O = Na2Be (OH) 4 + H2.
Beryllium hydroxide Be (OH) 2 is a polymeric compound insoluble in water. It exhibits amphoteric properties:
Be (OH) 2 + 2KOH = K2Be (OH) 4,
Be (OH) 2 + 2HСl = BeСl2 + 2H2O.
In most compounds, beryllium exhibits a coordination number of 4. For example, in the structure of solid BeCl2 there are chains with bridged chlorine atoms.
Due to the formation of strong tetrahedral anions, many beryllium compounds react with other metal salts:
BeF2 + 2KF = K2BeF4
With hydrogen (H), beryllium does not directly interact. Beryllium hydride BeH2 is a polymeric substance, it is obtained by reaction.
BeCl2 + 2LiH = BeH2 + 2LiCl,
carried out in ether solution.
The action of beryllium hydroxide Be (OH) 2 with solutions of carboxylic acids or evaporation of solutions of their beryllium salts yields beryllium oxy salts, for example, Be4O (CH3COO) 6 oxyacetate. These compounds contain the tetrahedral group Be4O, the acetate ribs are located along the six edges of this tetrahedron. Such compounds play an important role in the processes of purification of beryllium, since they do not dissolve in water, but they readily dissolve in organic solvents and are easily sublimated in a vacuum.
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- metal, 2period 2 And the group, the main character, what else nada?