Sema and semema What is it? Explain, please, on a concrete example.
Semeem, or semanthema (from Greek I mean, the term is formed by analogy with the terms of phoneme, morpheme) unit of the language content plan, correlated with morpheme (the minimal unit of the expression plan). . Sema is the semantic distinctive feature of the semen with respect to an insignificant set of elements that really has. Semema a set of distinctive semantic features (sem). Class is a set of generic semen seeds.
Sema - (from the Greek. sign) minimum, maximum unit content plan. Semes are elementary reflections in language various aspects and properties of the designated objects and phenomena of reality. Sema is the operational unit of component analysis and lexico-semantic variants of words and the establishment of their similarity and difference. It is realized as a component of the seme of elementary the meaning of a word (a lexical-semantic variant of a word). Unlike semes of a higher-level content plan unit: being socially conditioned, it acts as a content side linguistic unit for communicative level.
The structure of the semen is revealed by the content values to its simplest constituent semes. Semes as constructive components of meaning are not the same in their nature and hierarchical status, because the objective properties of objects and phenomena reflected by them have different significance for systematization and discrimination outside of linguistic objects. Central and hierarchically the main in the structure of the semen is arhisema a generic integrating sema, characteristic of all units of a particular class and reflecting their common categorical properties and attributes. AT lexical meaning of the word the father (the man in relation to his children), as in all other terms of kinship, stands out the arhisema relative. With the help of differential semes the differences of units of the semantic field are described. These are specific species. Thus, all five semes, forming the main lexical meaning of the word father, namely: male gender, parent, direct relationship, blood relationship, first generation, act as species specifiers of the generic term relative (relative) male, (relative) parent, etc. Due to these differential sememes, the word father as a term kinship is opposed in totality to the other members of the semantic fields: father mother (male gender female sex), father son (parent born), father uncle (direct relationship indirect relationship), father's stepfather (a blood relationship of the uncircumcised kinship), father of the grandfather (first generation second generation parent, etc.) Archesems and differential semes are in hyper-hyponymic relations