Sema and semema What is it? Explain, please, on a concrete example.

Sema and semema What is it? Explain, please, on a concrete example.

  1. A sememe, or semanteme (from Greek. I designate; the term is formed by analogy with the terms phoneme, morpheme) is a unit of the content plan of a language, correlated with a morpheme (minimum unit of expression plan). .
    Sema is a semantic distinguishing feature of a semem with a relatively small set of elements that it actually has. Semem is a set of distinctive semantic features (sem). A classroom is a set of generic seeds.

    Sema - (from the Greek. sign) minimum, maximum unit content plan. Semes are elementary reflections in language various sides and properties of designated objects and phenomena of reality. Sema is an operational unit of component analysis and lexico-semantic variants of words and establishing their similarities and differences. It is implemented as a component of the elementary element
    the meaning of a word (a lexical-semantic variant of a word). Unlike
    seme seme unit of higher level content plan: being
    socially conditioned, it acts as a content side
    linguistic unit for communicative level.

    The structure of the semen is revealed by the content
    values ​​to its simplest constituent semes. Semes as constructive components of value are not identical in nature and hierarchical status, since the objective properties of objects and phenomena reflected by them have different significance for systematization and differentiation outside language objects.
    Central and hierarchically the main in the structure of the semen is
    the archisema is a generic integrating seme, peculiar to all units of a certain class and reflecting their general categorical properties and characteristics. AT lexical meaning of the word the father (the man in relation to his children), as in all other terms of kinship, stands out the arhisema relative. With the help of differential semes the differences of units of the semantic field are described. These are specific species. Thus, all five semes, forming the main lexical meaning of the word father, namely: male gender, parent, direct relationship, blood relationship, first generation,
    act as species specifiers of the generic term relative
    (relative) male, (relative) parent, etc.
    Due to these differential sememes, the word father as a term
    kinship is opposed in totality to the other members of the semantic
    Fields: father mother (male gender female), father son
    (parent born), father uncle (direct relationship
    indirect relationship), father and stepfather (blood relationship nebrovnoe
    kinship) father grandfather (first generation second generation
    parent, etc.) Archesems and differential semes are in
    hyper-hyponymic relations

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