Relatively recently a new word appeared in our language - a monotown. This concept is a real fact of our economy, so far little studied.
The concept of "monotown" in the practice of our country means nothing more than a "city-plant". It denotes the closest connection between the existence of a settlement and a fairly large enterprise. At the same time, a plant or a factory is called simply city-forming. To date, it is impossible to find in the legislative framework what "monotown" means. This word is only implied in the normative acts, which mention the city-forming enterprises.
There is a certain methodology of the Ministry of Regional Development, on which it is possible to identify a monotown. It is such a settlement, in which over twenty-five percent of the inhabitants are employees of the same enterprise. And the output produced by this plant or factory on 50% relates only to one particular industry.
A monotown is a rather complex structure. There is an inextricable link between the enterprise and the settlement. And the largest plant or factory is not only economic activity. A social burden is placed on such an enterprise, which makes it possible to ensure all living conditions in a given locality. However, this situation leads to the fact that the products manufactured have a high cost price. It includes the costs of maintaining the social sphere. As a result, the end product is not able to withstand competition in the market because of its high cost.
Which cities can be classified as single-industry? According to experts, these are the settlements where:
1. There is one or several similar enterprises that have the same industry affiliation. In this case, all other economic entities of such a city produce products only for the needs of its population.
2. There is a chain of enterprises that have technological connections and work for one definite final market (except those who produce products for the needs of the city).
3. The income of the local budget largely depends on the work of one or several enterprises.
4. The population has a uniform professional composition.
In addition, a monocity is a settlement located at a considerable distance from other cities, or without developed connections with the outside world in the form of roads, telephone networks, etc.
Classification by type
The Ministry of Regional Development of the Russian Federation takes into account in its list all Russian single-industry towns. The list of them for today includes 460 settlements. In this case, they are classified into several types. Thus, Russia's monocities may:
- to have one city-forming enterprise;
- to be companions of large cities;
- to have several town-forming enterprises.
Each of these types of monoprofile settlements has its own characteristics of the socio-economic environment and, as a consequence, special needs in the sphere of social sector content.
Mono-cities of Russia began to conduct their list not at the time when the planned economy of the Soviet Union functioned. Everything happened much earlier. The first monocities of Russia arose under Peter I. It was a time when new manufactures such as cloth manufactories and ironworks were organized throughout the country.
The zones of development at that time were the Moscow region and the Urals. Some factories-settlements of that time exist even now. This is Asha, Irbit and others.
The development of the monotown once again began at the end of the 19 century. During this period, workers' settlements arose on the basis of coal and light industry. So, thanks to the development of manufactory production, such settlements as Pavlov Posad, Orekhovo-Zuevo, Shuya and Drezna appeared. Many miner monocities emerged during this period in the Rostov and Kemerovo regions.
Formation of Soviet power
The next stage for such settlements was the beginning of the thirties of the last century. In those turbulent times when the young Soviet state was developing, a monotown was part of the territorial production complex. Among the most striking examples of such settlements are Novokuznetsk, Magnitka and Apatity. Some mono-profile cities of that period were built using the labor of prisoners of the GULAG. For example, Norilsk and Vorkuta.
Evacuation of large enterprises
A large number of mono-profile cities appeared in our country during the Second World War. They arose on the basis of evacuated enterprises. Later, some of these workers' villages merged with nearby cities. An example of this is Bezymyanka, who joined Kuibyshev, as well as Tankograd, which became part of Chelyabinsk. Some of the evacuated enterprises subsequently themselves became city-forming. An example of this is Shadrinsk. It arose on the basis of the evacuated from Moscow part of the ZIL plant.
In the second half of the twentieth century, production capacities began to be located in existing small and medium-sized cities. This happened, as a rule, in the eastern lands of Russia. Here the enterprises also became city-forming. An example of this can serve as highly specialized cities, power engineers, which are located near nuclear and thermal power plants. This Kirovsk, Volgorechensk, Novomichurinsk, etc. A narrow specialization is different, and cities such as Megin, Urai and Neftegorsk. There are enterprises engaged in the extraction of gas and oil. Monoprofile cities also began to appear, the population of which was engaged in extraction of mining and chemical raw materials, iron ore, coal, non-ferrous metals and building materials. In the same period, thanks to the development of the food industry, there were large meat-packing plants, sugar and cheese factories. They were built in many district centers located in the European part of our country. Examples of such settlements are: Zolotukh (Kursk region), Starodub (Bryansk region), Shumikha and Petuhovo (Kurgan region), and many others.
To implement the nuclear and defense policy of Russia in the country, closed monocities were created. These are Kurchatov and Polyarny, Snezhinsk and Baikonur. Such cities were independent administrative formations, restricting the entry and exit of citizens, as well as having special supply.
The rapid development of Russia's scientific and technical potential has become the reason for the creation of science cities. The first experiment was conducted in the Novosibirsk Academgorodok. Somewhat later, Troitsk and Obninsk, Chernogolovka and Dubna, Zelenograd and many others were built.
Already at the end of the 80-ies of the last century in Russia there were about four hundred monocities. A significant part of these settlements was built near the enterprises of woodworking and forestry, food industry, as well as mechanical engineering.
Distinctive feature of single-industry towns
Settlements built in close proximity to large enterprises have inseparable links with them. And this is observed not only in the economic, but also in the social sphere. The city-forming enterprise itself ensures the vital activity of the population.
During the Soviet Union, workers of mono-towns received departmental housing. On the balance of factories and plants there were boilers and kindergartens, educational institutions and polyclinics. The production complex carried all the costs of providing social facilities, including costs in the cost of own products. With the advent of market economy, this led to the noncompetitiveness of such enterprises.
What does monotown mean for our country? It is a settlement supporting the work of a large enterprise, and, accordingly, contributing to the economic development of the state. To maximize the efficiency of single-industry cities, they were always located with reference to large deposits, the industrial belt of state development, and so on.
So, in the agglomeration zone there are such monotowns as Voskresensk, Kirishi and Novomoskovsk. Their city-forming objects are enterprises related to the metallurgical and chemical industries. The high economic status of the monotown satellite of the agglomeration zone arises due to its proximity to a large administrative center. This allows the state to allocate a smaller amount of funding to maintain the social environment of such a settlement.
On the eastern and northern territories of Russia, a large number of single-industry towns have been built, specializing in the processing of raw materials. These are Nizhnevartovsk and Surgut, Usinsk and Novy Urengoy.
Traditionally, the territory of the industrial belt of the country, which is located in the Urals and in the south of Siberia, was used to house monocities. Krasnoturinsk, Beloretsk, Sayanogorsk, and others are built here. The monotowns of this belt, whose enterprises are related to metallurgy and machine building, are least successful in the development of the social sphere. Such a situation has developed due to their considerable distance from large administrative centers.
With the advent of the nineties of the last century, the main part of monotowns was in a difficult situation. This was facilitated by:
- decline in the level of production;
- breaking the ties of the planned economy;
- inability of the main products to compete in the market;
- a large number of social facilities on the balance sheet of enterprises.
All these factors significantly influenced the deterioration of the quality of life of the population of single-industry towns. The problem of such factory settlements is that the enterprises located on their territory have lost a significant part of the market. Particularly difficult was the situation in those settlements, whose economy was dominated by the nearby production complex. How can such monotowns come out of the crisis situation? State support is required by all means.
In a particularly difficult situation were closed single-industry towns. In connection with the loss of demand for products, they were on the brink of extinction. The lack of funding from the state led to the cessation of scientific research and increased unemployment. To date, the program of monocities closed type should proceed from the huge anti-crisis potential available in them. In addition, r
The state, which cares about its defense and security, intends to continue to finance the activities of these high-tech enterprises. To date, closed monotowns have started to produce products for export. For example, an electrochemical plant located in Novouralsk delivers low enriched uranium to Spain, Germany, France, Sweden, the UK, Finland and the CIS countries.
Ways to solve the problem
The program "Monotown" can have several mechanisms to overcome the current situation. The first of them is a market one. For its execution, employees need to move to those settlements that will be able to provide them with work. However, there are complications here. Among them - the lack of housing and the lack of free vacancies in the labor market. The low mobility of the workforce is also associated with the vast expanses of our country. In addition, the elderly, who are many in single-industry towns, it is difficult to break away from the place, to go through re-qualification and adapt to new conditions.
The most acceptable ways to solve the problems of single-industry towns are in large-scale government support or in the evolution of urban functions. In the first case, the site of non-operating enterprises can be used to develop a new business. Then the state should legislatively fix a number of benefits for those who will produce products here. In the second case, the city will lose its original functions. The enterprise will be closed, and the settlement will become the center of the agricultural region.