More than 450 years ago, Ivan the Terrible approved the opening of the first printing house in Great Russia. Thanks to the expansion of territories, the development of handicraft, economy and trade, the population of Great Russia, more and more knowledge was needed in all sorts of directions and areas, including for spiritual enrichment.
The need for printed publications arose because of the imperfection of handwritten copies. Handwritten books, in most cases distorted information, and sometimes even the meaning of the manuscript. The population grew, the number of manuscript books increased, and their quality rapidly declined. The people's trust in the scribes quickly dried up, because no one wanted to read expensive, not true manuscripts with scant meaning.
In 1563, Peter Mstislavtsev and Ivan Fedorov became the first printers in Russia. The very first, precisely dated, was the book The Apostle, which, at that time, was considered the main textbook for the study of the clergy. Monks, peasants, noblemen learned from it. "Apostle" is not just a book, but a kind of "ABC" for the parochial schools of the tsarist times. Monument to the First Printer Ivan Fedorov "in Moscow, authored by S. Volnukhin, created in 1909. The process of issuing the book "The Apostle" was difficult and creative enough, and took a year of painstaking work for printers. They cast fonts, created and improved printing equipment, diligently introduced new printing techniques, and were able to show the whole world, a real masterpiece!
Paper for the book was taken from France, it was different in that it was thin and very durable. The letters in the book are executed in a hand-written style, which means that the printers poured a special font that was attractive by its beautiful shape, curls and lines. For the convenience of the readers, Peter and Ivan came up with uniform spaces between words, indents from the edge of the page that were the same on the left and right. Peter and Ivan became real pioneers in the printing business, because in the book "The Apostle", they made engravings, which they reworked in their own creative way. The first engravings served as illustrations in the books. Centuries passed, engravings turned into pictures and became a vivid adornment of printed publications, especially children's. Font became standard and much more understandable than five centuries ago.
The first printed book published by Peter Mstislavtsev and Ivan Fedorov, in Russia, is still a relic of our Great Power. The ancient edition of the Apostle is the ancestor of the printing industry, which led society step by step to progress, new knowledge and self-knowledge.
"The First Russian Alphabet" was not the first! ova.rambler.ru/search?word s = When + on + Rus + appeared + first + books + and + first + alphabet The ancient Greek alphabet derives from the common Sanskrit root, when the languages of many Indo-European peoples were not so different. In general, by and large, practically all the peoples living on the territory of modern Europe (and not only in Europe) had their own alphabet still 3 thousand years ago, because every people always had dedicated priests who possessed Knowledge, including, naturally , and the skills of recording and storing information about the history of their tribe people.
What place does our country occupy in the appearance of books? When did the first books and the first alphabet appear in Russia?
The history of books in Russia begins with the first Russian birch bark letters, which appeared in Novgorod. In 863, the greatest event happened: the Slavic alphabet was invented. It was then that the Patriarch of Constantinople chose two brothers to fulfill the great enlightenment mission: Constantine (827-869) (his monastic name was Cyril, and the world was nicknamed the Philosopher), and Methodius (815-885). Both of them were born in the Greek city of Thessaloniki (now known as Thessaloniki), hence the name of the great enlighteners of Thessaloniki.
By 863, they both served under the court of Constantinople. Even the emperor knew them as people of highly educated and skillful diplomats.
The emperor's goal was political and spiritual expansion among the Eastern Slavs. But in fact, Cyril and Methodius fought for the right of the Slavs to genuine spiritual independence, to the equality of the Slavic language with Greek, Latin and Jewish, for the right to conduct divine services in the Slavonic language. According to the testimony of Chernorizza, the Brave Cyril invented an alphabet consisting of 38 letters, of which 24 practically matched the letters of the Greek alphabet. So there was the first alphabet.
Officially, the history of book business in Russia began in 1057. The very first handwritten book written in Cyrillic is Ostromirovo Gospel on parchment - a leather book created from October 1056 to May 1057. The Gospel was written for the Ostrogirsky Novgorod posadnik by deacon Gregory in just 8 months. In accordance with the Byzantine tradition accepted at that time, in the afterword to the book, the name of Ostromir is lauded and the lowest request for indulgence to the errors of the copyist is contained. To date, this is a true masterpiece of the book business of Ancient Russia! Therefore, the name of Gregory is one of the first among a number of Russian scribes and creators of manuscript books - great works that are masterpieces of world culture. http://www.heritage-books.ru/istoria_knigi.php