We often visit parks to relax, get away from the hustle and bustle and immerse in a calm and peaceful atmosphere. But they can be created not only for recreation and entertainment, but also, for example, to have a research focus. Parks are of various types, such as historical, zoological, memorial, but in this article we will talk about dendrological parks and botanical gardens. Let's look at their purpose and history.
Dendrology parks: definition
"Arboretum" in Greek means "tree". The Latin name will sound like “arboretum”. An arboretum park is an arboretum zone that is intended for public recreation. Its territory is set aside for cultivation in the open ground of woody plants, which are placed according to one or another feature, for example, decorative and geographical. It is noted that most often arboretums belong to botanical gardens, but they can also be independent units. Arboretum began to appear in connection with the development of such a field of botany as dendrology.
Note the arboretum with the most diverse collection of tree species: Sochi, Forestry Academy in St. Petersburg, as well as the Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). Abroad, the following examples of parks can be distinguished: Kournik Arboretum in Poland, Kew Arboretum (near London), Nikita Botanical Garden Arboretum in the Crimea. Arboretums can have a narrow focus, that is, they can only grow certain types of plants. These can be syringaria (specialize in the cultivation of lilacs), populets (poplar), koniferetum or pinaria (conifers), fructacetums (shrubs), vititsetums (lianas).
There is a single rule for all arboreta: all trees and shrubs are arranged on a systematic basis. That is, those belonging to the same genus will be planted in a separate area. By visiting the arboretum, you can get closer acquainted with the wonderful world of plants that are on the verge of extinction or no longer found in nature.
History of occurrence
The tree in the plant world has always occupied an important role, because throughout the history of mankind has brought great benefits to people. In the 18 century, works on dendrology appeared, but they only reflected the description of the external signs of plants. Later, scientists began to deal with such problems as the acclimatization of trees, the study of their genetics, as well as the creation of new species. Particular attention was paid to the introduction - the introduction of crops in those places that are not typical for their growth.
The tasks that face these objects
Dendrological parks and botanical gardens are directly related to the lands of specially protected areas. They represent a separate category of protected areas, where special collections of plants are created in order to enrich the plant world and preserve biodiversity. In addition, they are necessary for the implementation of educational, scientific and educational activities. These environmental institutions develop the scientific foundations of landscape architecture, ornamental gardening, gardening, planting wild plants, protecting them from pests and diseases, and much more.
Legal regime of dendrological parks and botanical gardens
Let's consider who controls these territories. The lands on which the botanical gardens and dendrological parks are located are transferred to the indefinite use of certain institutions. The territories of these objects are divided into various functional areas: exposure, scientific, experimental and administrative.
Monuments of nature, dendrological parks, botanical gardens have a special legal regime. The first ones are established by the decision of the Russian government and the executive bodies of the Russian Federation on the proposal of authorized state bodies in the field of environmental protection.
Those who are related to the land plots on which nature monuments are located, are obliged to carry out activities to ensure their special protection. Botanical gardens and arboretums can be both regional and federal. On their territory, activities that are not related to the performance of their tasks and are capable of disrupting the integrity of floristic objects are prohibited.
An example of a famous arboretum in Russia
Dendrological, botanical parks and gardens spread throughout the world. A lot of them in Russia. As a graphic example of such a park, one can name the Sochi Arboretum, which is part of the Sochi National Park. He, like other similar objects, acts as the keeper of the green collection. Located in the heart of the resort city, being a magnificent corner of exotic flora and fauna. There are more than 1700 species of trees and shrubs that are collected from different parts of the world.
Sochi Arboretum with its architectural structures, sculptures and fountains looks like a work of art. It appeared in the southern resort at the end of the 19 century, and was reconstructed in the 50 of the last century. Currently, more than 2 thousands of species of the world's flora have been planted in the park. He has long been included in the excursion program of most tourists. This tropical kingdom impresses with its variety of exotic plants that bloom even in winter. Not far from it, in the Adler district, is also located dendrological park "Southern Cultures".
What is a botanical garden?
According to the definition given by the Botanical Gardens International Botanical Gardens, it is an organization that has documented collections of living plants used for research purposes, as well as for educational processes, biodiversity conservation and the display of flora represented in it. Other definitions state that a botanical garden is a green area created for the purposes listed above. That is, the difference in the interpretation of this concept lies only in the fact that it is called either a territory or an organization.
In the modern view, this concept implies a specially protected urban green area, on the basis of the resources of which landscaped gardens and documented green collections are created. When botanical gardens usually operate greenhouses, nurseries, herbaria, sightseeing and educational departments.
In the collection of the Main Botanical Garden, which is located in Moscow, there are many plant species from the countries of the Northern Hemisphere, which were not immediately able to get used to the unusual climate for them.
When did the botanical garden first appear?
The first botanical garden was created in the XIV century in the Italian city of Salerno, which was famous in the Middle Ages as the oldest medical school in Europe. One of the famous doctors then was Matteo Silviko, who was also a nerd. In those days, the main source of drugs were various plants.
This man first opened a botanical garden: there students who could become doctors in the future could familiarize themselves with medicinal plants. The name he was given in honor of the ancient Roman goddess of wisdom - "Garden of Minerva." It became the place where plants began to be grown for scientific purposes. Such gardens later began to spread in Italy, and then appeared in other European countries. At first, they retained a medical focus, and then began to be created for other purposes.
Botanical Gardens Activities
In our country, for the first time, a botanical garden appeared under Peter I, namely in the 1706 year. It was created in order to grow medicinal plants in it, and the name only emphasized its focus - “Pharmaceutical garden”. But he also carried educational tasks. The king personally planted larch, fir and spruce in the garden so that visitors could clearly see the differences between them.
Botanical gardens are protected natural areas and scientific institutions. Their area is divided into sectors that correspond to certain climatic zones. For those plants that can not take root in the open field, build greenhouses, which create the right conditions. As scientific institutions, botanical gardens perform the following tasks: the study of plants and the preservation of rare species. At these institutions there are herbarium collections, libraries of botany literature, there are excursion departments.
China has the largest botanical garden, the scale of which is amazing. It is crossed by 13 rivers, there are mountains and gorges. In the Nikitsky Botanical Garden, which is located on the peninsula of Crimea, an olive grows, which is more than 2000 years old. The largest botanical garden in Europe is the Main Botanical Garden named after NV Tsitsin of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). The northernmost point in the world where this object is located is Norway. In our country, it is located on the Kola Peninsula.
Based on the information presented here, it becomes more obvious the great importance of such objects as dendrological parks and botanical gardens. They carry a lot of functions and reflect the beauty of the flora of our planet. In these corners of nature, created by man, in one place you can see the various types of plants collected from many countries of the world.