In the works of Russian poet and prose writer M.Yu. Lermontov's poem as a genre, as well as the theme of the Caucasus, always occupied a special place. “Mtsyri” is a work written in adulthood and embodying the best experience of a romantic author who has repeatedly glorified the majestic nature of mountains and created the image of an indomitable and freedom-loving hero.
The uneasy story of the creation of the poem “Mtsyri” by Lermontov has always aroused interest among readers. Moreover, its plot helps to understand the ideals and moral convictions of the author himself. To some extent, the hero’s confession can be considered a way of expressing thoughts and hopes that tormented the poet at a difficult time for Russia.
How did the idea of the poem "Mtsyri"
The history of the creation of the work dates back to the youthful years of Lermontov. At the age of seventeen, he left a note in which he noted that he would like to devote one of his creations to a peer who was languishing in a monastery (he was associated by the poet with a prison) and who dreams of finding freedom. Lermontov himself wrote that the choice of ideals was the most difficult for him at that moment. While they were incomprehensible to the full passion of the nature of the author, the work did not succeed. All that was possible to write (these are the poems of 30's “Confession” and “Boyar Orsha”) was not what the young man dreamed of.
The story of the creation of the poem "Mtsyri" Lermontov: chronology
The novice hero had related images in the poet's earlier works. In 1830, the poem “Confession” was written. It was based on the monologue of a young hermit-Spaniard who fell into a monastery-prison. The hero, sentenced to death, does not regret his fate. On the contrary, he rebels against cruel laws and is ready to fight for human love. He told the old monk about his unfulfilled dreams and aspirations - this is the basis of the story “Mtsyri”.
A little later, the story of creating the story "Mtsyri" gets its development. In the middle of 30, Lermontov wrote another poem, Boyar Orsha. The action takes place in the terrible years of the reign of Ivan the Terrible. The story of the life of the protagonist Arseny directly echoes the fate of the Spaniard, and some lines of their fiery speeches are almost completely repeated. In the new poem, the plot becomes more complex and includes the story of the unspoken love of the simple servant and the daughter of a noble boyar. Later, the main ideas of these works (by the way, Lermontov never published them) will be embodied in the story about Mtsyri, which makes it possible to speak of their direct relationship.
Thus, the years passed before the youthful idea of M.Yu. Lermontov was embodied in the plot of the famous romantic poem. So the story of the creation of the work "Mtsyri" covered several years of the author's work.
Journey to the Georgian Military Road
Another impetus for the implementation of plans for the poet was the first link. In 1837 year M.Yu. Lermontov, following to the place of “imprisonment”, drove past one of the Caucasian monasteries in Mtskheta (the capital of Georgia was the name of that in the old days). Here he met with an already elderly monk, with whom the history of the creation of "Mtsyri" is now associated. Lermontov, according to the testimony of P. Viskovatov, after the conversation that had taken place, recalled his long-time dream.
Bury (as the monastery servant was called in Georgia) told the sad story of his own life. Once upon a time, as a six-year-old boy, he was captured and brought by a Russian general (according to Lermontov - Yermolov) to this region. One of the novices of the monastery Javari reacted to the child with sympathy and left him. At first the prisoner tried to protest, even made an escape, which almost ended with his death. However, over time, he completely accepted his fate and remained forever living among the monks. It was this story that inspired Lermontov to write a new story about a freedom-loving and rebellious hero. So the fate of the old bury and the story of the creation of the poem "Mtsyri" turned into one.
Work on the work
Returning from the Caucasus, the poet returned to his old plan and organically combined it with the story he had heard. The wild and beautiful Caucasian nature, or rather the neighborhood of the Javari Monastery, located near the confluence of two mighty rivers, the Kura and Aragva, was most suitable as a background (a feature of romantic poems) for the unfolding events. Georgian folklore works (for example, the legend of the wild leopard), heard by Lermontov on previous trips to the Caucasus, also came to mind. They influenced the character of Mtsyri in a significant way. The history of the creation of the poem, therefore, was increasingly tied to the familiar features of life in the Caucasus and personal impressions left over from repeated visits to these places. As a result, the text of the romantic poem was soon born: the author’s mark on her manuscript was preserved, indicating the day of completion: August 5 1839. And the next year the work was printed in a collection with poems of the poet.
The story of the creation of the poem “Mtsyri” includes the story of S. Aksakov about how in May 1840 of the year the poet personally read the chapter “Fight with the Leopard” on the name of the writer N.V. Gogol. The writer himself was not present at the evening, but communicated with former guests there. According to him, the new "brainchild" of Lermontov was greeted with enthusiasm and caused a lively response.
Other memories of acquaintance with the poem left A.N. Ants He wrote that in 1839 he visited Tsarskoye Selo, where the poet was at that moment. One evening he visited Lermontov, who was in an excited state and read to him from beginning to end a new “magnificent” poem called “Mtsyri”.
Formation of storyline
The processing of the heard story and its correlation with the ideological plan of the work is also the story of the creation of Mtsyri. Lermontov did not immediately come up with this name. In draft form, the poem was called "Bury." As the work and implementation of the creative idea of the title of the work has changed. The word “bury” in Russian means “monk”. But the hero of Lermontov has not yet passed the tonsure rite, therefore, “mtsyri” was more appropriate for his name. In addition, in the Georgian language this word had another meaning - a stranger, a lonely person, without relatives and friends. This fully characterizes the main character of the poem.
Call of a passionate soul
The fate of the old man from Javari, who spoke with the poet, and the young men from the poem were formed differently - this was a fundamentally author's approach. The first came to terms with his lot and lived in the monastery to old age. The second wishes in any way to gain freedom. In his quest, he is not afraid to speak out against the unfamiliar, but so close to him, the natural world. She is a symbol of free life for Mtsyri.
The story of the creation of the poem includes a similar transformation of the life of the young captive - the image of the old man to a greater extent determined the spirit of the hero born in the Caucasus.
Why does Mtsyri die
The final of the poem is tragic. Mtsyri, so eager to find unity with nature, perishes. According to the laws of romanticism, the hero does not find unity with the monks who live near him for several years and who wish him well, nor with the natural elements of nature. The first are alien to Mtsyri in spirit. The latter prevail over the monastic upbringing of the hero.
The idea of "Mtsyri", the story of the creation of the poem testifies to the rebellious spirit of the poet himself, who was suffocating in the atmosphere of heartlessness that prevailed in Russia in the 30 of the 19 century. This is his dream of a "gigantic nature", striving for struggle and ready to go on in his quest to the end.