In connection with the revolutionary events of 1905, about fifty political parties, both local and large, with a network of cells all over the country, were formed in Russia. They can be attributed to three areas - radical revolutionary-democratic, liberal-opposition and monarchist conservative parties of Russia. On the latter in the main and will be discussed in this article.
Batch creation process
Historically, the design of a variety of political parties occurs with precise consistency. The first to form are opposition left parties. During the 1905 revolution of the year, that is, a little later the signing of the October Manifesto, numerous centrist parties were formed, uniting, for the most part, the intelligentsia.
And finally, as a reaction to the Manifesto, the rightists appeared - monarchical and conservative parties of Russia. An interesting fact: all these parties disappeared from the historical stage in the reverse order: the February Revolution swept the right, then the October Revolution abolished the centrists. Moreover, most of the left-wing parties united with the Bolsheviks or dissolved themselves in the 20-s, when the demonstrative trials of their leaders began.
List and Leaders
The conservative party — not one — was destined to outlast 1917 for a year. They were all born at different times, and died almost simultaneously. The conservative party "Russian Assembly" existed longer than anyone else, because it was created earlier - in 1900. About her below will be discussed in more detail.
The conservative party "Union of the Russian People" was founded in 1905, the leaders are Dubrovin and from 1912 of the year - Markov. The Union of Russian People existed from 1905 to 1911, and then to 1917 it was already purely formal. V. A. Gringmut in the same 1905 founded the Russian Monarchist Party, which later became the "Russian Monarchist Union."
High-born aristocrats also had their own conservative party, United Nobility, created in 1906. The famous Russian People’s Union named after Mikhail the Archangel was led by V. M. Purishkevich. The national-conservative All-Russian National Union party disappeared in 1912, led by Balashov and Shulgin.
The moderately right-wing party graduated from 1910. The All-Russian Dubrovino Union of the Russian People was only able to form in 1912. Later, the conservative party "Patriotic Union of the Patriotic Union" was created by leaders Orlov and Skvortsov in 1915. A. I. Guchkov gathered his "Union of the seventeenth of October" in 1906 (the same Octobrists). Here are just about all the major conservative parties in Russia of the early 20 century.
St. Petersburg became the birthplace of the RS - "Russian Assembly" in November 1900. The poet V. L. Velichko, in a narrow circle, lamented the fact that he was constantly haunted by vague but clearly visionary visions, as Russia was being captured by some dark forces. He proposed to create a kind of community of Russian people who are ready to confront the future misfortune. This is how the RS party began - beautifully and patriotically. Already in January, 1901 was ready for the RS charter and elected leadership. As the historian A. D. Stepanov put it at the first meeting, the Black Hundred movement was born.
So far, this has not sounded as threatening as, say, eighteen or twenty years from now. The charter was approved by Senator Durnovo and sealed with warm words, full of bright hope. Initially, the RS collections were similar to a Slavophile literary and artistic club.
There were going to intellectuals, officials, clergy and landowners. Cultural and educational goals were at the forefront. However, after the 1905 revolution of the year, thanks to its activities, the RS has ceased to be similar to other conservative parties in Russia of the beginning of the 20 century. She became vividly monarchic.
Initially, the RS arranged a discussion of the reports and arranged thematic evenings. Meetings took place on Fridays and were devoted to political and public issues. Also popular were literary Mondays. All the “Fridays” were first dealt with by V.V. Komarov, but they became popular and influential in the fall of 1902, when VL Velichko took charge of them.
With 1901, apart from "Mondays" and "Fridays," separate meetings began (here we should note the activity of the Regional Department, which was chaired by Professor A. M. Zolotarev, later this department became an independent organization of the "Russian outlying society"). Since 1903, under the leadership of N. A. Engelhardt, “literary Tuesdays” have become increasingly popular.
Already in 1901, the Russian Assembly had more than a thousand people, and in 1902 it was six hundred more. Political activities boiled down to the fact that, starting from 1904, the tsar periodically submitted petitions and loyal addresses, organized deputations to the palace and carried out propaganda in the periodical press.
Deputies at various times decorated the presence of the princes Golitsyn and Volkonsky, Count Apraksin, Archpriest Bogolyubov, as well as not less famous people - Engelhardt, Zolotarev, Mordvinov, Leontyev, Puryshev, Bulatov, Nikolsky. The sovereign received the RS delegation with enthusiasm. Conservative political parties Nicholas II, one might say, loved and trusted them.
RS and revolutionary unrest
In 1905 and 1906, the “Russian Assembly” didn’t do anything special, and nothing happened to it, except for the post-revolutionary circular, which was forbidden to be members of the royal army in any political community. Then the liberal and conservative parties lost many of their members, and its founder, A. M. Zolotarev, left the RS.
In February, 1906 RS organized an all-Russian congress in St. Petersburg. In fact, the party "Russian Assembly" was only the 1907 year, when the program of the Conservative Party was adopted and additions made to the charter. Now the RS could elect and be elected to the State Duma and the State Council.
The basis of the program was the motto: "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality." Not a single monarchist congress "Russian Assembly" did not miss. However, it was not possible to create an independent political faction very soon. The first and second dumas did not give the RS chances, so the party decided not to put candidates on the contrary, to vote for the extreme left (such a trick against the Octobrists and Cadets). The political position on the Third and Fourth Dumas unequivocally did not recommend its deputies to block with centrists (Octobrists) and even with moderate right-wing nationalist parties.
Until the end of 1908, passions raged in the monarchical camp, the outcome of which was the splits of many organizations. For example, Purishkevich’s conflict with Dubrovin split the Union of the Russian People, after which the Union of the Archangel Michael appeared. Opinions in the PC are also divided. The party was persecuted by quarrels, cares and deaths, but especially by the bureaucratic carrion.
By 1914, the leaders of the RS decided to completely de-politicize the party, seeing in the educational and cultural orientation the right path to settling conflicts. However, the war deepened all the faults in relations, since Markovites were for the immediate conclusion of peace with Germany, and Purishkevich's supporters - on the contrary, they needed war to the bitter end. As a result, by the February Revolution, the “Russian Assembly” had become obsolete and turned into a small circle of the Slavophil direction.
The Union of the Russian People is another organization representing conservative parties. The table shows how high the passionarity was at the beginning of the twentieth century - all sorts of societies, communities multiplied, like mushrooms under an autumn rain. The NRC Party began operations in 1905. Its program and activities were entirely based on chauvinistic and even more anti-Semitic ideas of a monarchical persuasion.
Orthodox radicalism especially distinguished the views of its members. The NRC was actively opposed to any kind of revolutions and parliamentarism, advocated the inseparability and unity of Russia and advocated the joint actions of the authorities and the people, which will be an advisory body under the sovereign. This organization, of course, was banned immediately after the end of the February Revolution, and recently, in 2005, they tried to recreate it.
Russian nationalism has never been alone in the world. The nineteenth century is universally marked by nationalist movements. In Russia, active political activity could only appear during a state crisis, after a defeat in the war with the Japanese and a cascade of revolutions. The king only then decided to support the initiative of right-wing social groups.
First, the above-considered elite organization “Russian Assembly” appeared, which had nothing to do with the people, and its activities did not find a sufficient response from the intelligentsia. Naturally, such an organization could not resist the revolution. As, however, and other political parties - liberal, conservative. The people no longer needed right-wing, but left-wing, revolutionary organizations.
The Union of Russian People united in their ranks only the higher nobility, idealized the pre-Petrine era and recognized only the peasantry, the merchants and the nobility, and did not recognize the cosmopolitan intelligentsia as a class or as a layer. The course of the government SRL criticized for the international loans taken by him, believing that in this way the power is ruining the Russian people.
Nrc and terror
The "Union of the Russian People" was created - the largest of the monarchical unions - on the initiative of several people at the same time: the doctor Dubrovin, Abbot Arseny and the artist Maikov. Alexander Dubrovin, a member of the Russian Assembly, became the head. He turned out to be a good organizer, a politically sensitive and energetic person. He easily came into contact with the government and the administration and convinced many that only mass patriotism can save the current order, that a society is needed, which will hold mass actions and individual terror.
The conservative 20 parties of the century begin to engage in terror - it was something new. Nevertheless, the movement received support of every kind: police, political and financial. The king blessed the NRC from the bottom of his heart in the hope that even terror is better than the inactivity shown by other conservative parties in Russia.
In December, the 1905 of the year in the Mikhailovsky Manege of the NRC, a mass rally was organized, where about twenty thousand people gathered. Prominent people — famous monarchists, bishops — spoke. The people showed unity and enthusiasm. The Union of the Russian People published the Russian Flag newspaper. The king received deputations, listened to reports and received gifts from the leaders of the Union. For example, the distinctive signs of the NRC members, who from time to time wore both the king and the crown prince.
In the meantime, the appeals of the NRC to absolutely pogrom anti-Semitic content were replicated to the people for millions of rubles received from the treasury. This organization grew at a tremendous pace, regional areas opened in almost all major cities of the empire, in a few months - more than sixty offices.
Congress, charter, program
In August 1906, the NRC charter was approved. It contained the main ideas of the party, the program of its actions and the concept of development. This document is rightly considered the best among all the statutes of monarchical societies, because it was brief, clear and precise in its wording. A congress of leaders from all regions was convened at the same time to coordinate activities and centralize them.
The organization has become militarized because of the new structure. All the rank-and-file members of the party were divided into dozens, dozens shot down into hundreds, and hundreds into thousands, respectively, with subordination to the foremen, centurions and tysyatskim. The organization of such a plan well helped popularity among the people. A particularly active monarchist movement was in Kiev, and a huge part of the members of the NRC lived in Little Russia.
The revered John of Kronstadt, All-Russian Father, as he was called, arrived at the Mikhailovsky Manege for the next celebration of the consecration of the banners, as well as the NRC banner. He said a welcoming word and later joined the NRC himself, and until the very end was an honorary member of this Union.
To prevent revolutions and maintain order, the NRC kept self-defense in combat readiness, often armed. “White Guard” from Odessa - especially famous squad of such a plan. The principle of the formation of self-defense - military Cossack with есsaules, atamans and foremen. All the factories of Moscow and St. Petersburg existed such squads.
By its fourth congress, the NRC was the first among Russian monarchist parties. He had more than nine hundred branches, and the vast majority of the delegates were members of this Union. But then the contradictions among the leaders began. Purishkevich tried to remove Dubrovin from affairs, and soon he succeeded. He pulled all the publishing and organizational work to himself, many leaders of the local branches no longer listened to anyone but Purishkevich. The same is true of many of the founders of the NRC.
And there was a conflict that had gone so far that a powerful organization quickly faded away. Purishkevich in 1908 created his "Union of the Archangel Michael", left the Moscow department of the NRC. The Tsarist Manifesto of October 17 finally split the NRC, as the attitude to the creation of the Duma was polarly different. Then there was a terrorist act with the murder of a prominent State Duma deputy, in which they accused supporters of Dubrovin and himself.
The St. Petersburg department of the NRF in 1909, just removed Dubrovin from power, leaving him honorary membership in the Union, and very quickly ousted his associates from all posts. Before 1912, Dubrovin tried to fight for a place under the sun, but he realized that he could not return anything, and in August registered the charter of the Dubrovinsky Union, after which regional offices began to split off from the center one by one. All this did not add to the authority of the NRC organization, and it finally collapsed. The conservative parties (right) were convinced that the government was afraid of the power of this Union, and Stolypin himself played a huge role in its collapse.
It got to the point that in the elections to the State Duma the NRC constituted a single bloc with the Octobrists. Subsequently, attempts were repeatedly made to recreate a single monarchical organization, but no one achieved success here. And the February Revolution banned monarchist parties, initiating lawsuits against the leaders. This was followed by the October Revolution and the red terror. Most of the leaders of the NRC in these years was waiting for death. Remaining reconciled, erasing all past contradictions, the White movement.
Soviet historians considered the NRC to be an absolutely fascist organization, which much anticipated their appearance in Italy. Even the NRC participants themselves after many years wrote that the "Union of the Russian People" became the historical predecessor of fascism (one of the leaders, Markov-2, wrote about it with pride). V. Lacker is convinced that the Black Hundreds have traveled about half the way from the reactionary movements of the nineteenth century to the right-wing populist (that is, fascist) parties of the twentieth century.