The source of the Amur is considered to be the confluence of the Shilka and Argun rivers in the Trans-Baikal Territory. There are many ridges in the valleys of which numerous streams flow. On the tops and gentle slopes of granites and sandstones larch sparse taiga grows.
Source and Current
The length from the source to the place where the Cupid flows - 2824 kilometers. The height of the terrain along the course varies greatly. The first 900 kilometers is a plateau where the channel is not suitable for navigation. At the same time there are many small tributaries. In the area of Blagoveshchensk begin numerous loops and lowlands. "Krivuny" are local attractions, surprising tourists.
Between Blagoveshchensk and Khabarovsk slow current and lowlands. Here is the large tributary Zeya. Some experts are inclined to believe that the Amur is a tributary of the Zeya, since at the confluence the river bed is wider and deeper. Anyway, the debate on this matter continues today.
The lower section is characterized by severe marshiness. On the area surrounding the mouth where the Amur River flows, on the waterproof clay there are grass and moss-grass wetlands. Peatlands in the north of the Khabarovsk Territory form Mari. These are swamps with rare larches.
In what direction does the Amur River flow? Where does one of the country's longest water arteries flow into? The first question can be answered confidently, that to the east. At the same time, the waters have to make several serious turns along its course, as well as replace several climatic and physiographic zones. These are forests, forest-steppes, steppes and even semi-deserts.
As for the second question, there are several points of view about where the Amur River flows. It ends with the same name estuary. Due to fresh water, the salinity level here is relatively low (about 10%), while the same indicator in the Sea of Okhotsk fluctuates at the level of 30%.
Amur estuary belongs to the Sea of Okhotsk or the Sea of Japan. For example, domestic experts are supporters of the first theory, which is reflected in various encyclopedias and reference books of the USSR and Russia. At the same time, a second point of view is popular abroad - about the Sea of Japan (International Hydrographic Organization, etc.).
Near the mouth, where the Amur River flows, is the city of Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. Until 1926, he was called Nikolaevsk and got his name in honor of Emperor Nicholas I, in whose reign was founded. Until 1870, it was the main port in the Russian Far East, from where it then moved to Vladivostok.
Rivers flowing into the Amur River form a vast pool. Only 54% of its area is located in Russia, another 44% is in China, the remaining 2% is in Mongolia. The river itself can be divided into three sections: the upper, to the Zei tributary, the middle, to the Ussuri, and the lower - to the mouth.
Total basin area is 1 855 000 km2. According to this indicator, Amur is in fourth place among the rivers of Russia, yielding to the Yenisei, Ob and Lena. The largest river in the European part of the country is the Volga, inferior to the Far Eastern artery, having a basin area of 1,361 thousand km2.
Climate and minerals
Due to the climate during the year, the water level fluctuates significantly. Thus, monsoon rains account for about 75% of the annual flow. Periodically floodplains can reach 10 – 30 kilometers. That is why the food of Cupid - rain.
More recently, in 2013, torrential rains led to massive flooding of settlements and large-scale evacuation of the population. More than a hundred people died, thousands more were injured. According to meteorologists, such natural disasters occur here no more than once every two hundred years.
Local waters are covered with ice by the second decade of November. Spring opening occurs in April. The approximate navigation season is 150 – 170 days.
The bowels near the places where the Amur flows, as well as the depths of the river itself, are rich in gifts of nature. These are such minerals as iron ore, coal, antimony, tin, graphite, gold, molybdenum, lead and graphite. A large number of chalk, limestone, marble, cement raw materials, etc.
The frontier position, where several natural zones are adjacent, has enriched the Amur with various fish. For example, local salmon inhabit the water, the temperature of which is optimal for it. And the slightest excess of it already makes the environment unsuitable for his life. On the contrary, for tropical fish, the local waters are the coldest of those suitable for normal life. Such an amazing combination of local inhabitants is explained by the biological characteristics of fish as a species. The protein of these living organisms changes temperature according to water, in contrast to warm-blooded animals, for example, mammals.
On the site from the source to the place where the Amur River flows, there are several cities. They are Amursk (founded in 1958), Blagoveshchensk (1856), Khabarovsk (1858), Komsomolsk-on-Amur (1932), Nikolaevsk-on-Amur (1850). At the same time, Blagoveshchensk is the administrative center of the Jewish Autonomous Region, and Khabarovsk is the center of the region of the same name (subject of the federation). A large role in the development of local lands at one time was played by the Cossacks, who turned out to be local Russian pioneers. Often their life consisted of a hastily set hut among the desert and foreign marshes. Such buildings XVII-XVIII centuries. are a local landmark (for example, in Nikolaevsk-on-Amur).
A curious distinctive feature is that this waterway on its significant area is the state border between Russia and China. Historically, until the XVII century, the land in the lower reaches of the river was under the jurisdiction of the Middle Kingdom. On the right bank of the Amur there are also Chinese cities, for example, Heihe.
All those territories where it originates, where the Amur flows into, at different times belonged to different peoples and civilizations. In connection with this, the river bore certain names. The Russian version appeared as an imitation of local Tungus-Manchu languages, in translation from which the toponym means “big river”.
The Chinese call the waterway “the black river,” in other words, Heihe. This is due to local mythology. Once upon a time, a black dragon lived in the local waters. The anatomy of the body of a mythical creature personifies the tributaries of the river, which are the "paws" of a flying kite.