The first states appeared in the southern regions of our planet, where the most favorable natural-geographical conditions were for this. They originated in about one period about five thousand years ago.
What is the reason for the emergence of a new type of social relations?
When and why the first states appeared, that is, their origin, is one of the controversial issues in science. According to the version of the famous German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, the state arises in the process of increasing social inequality, increasing the role of property and the emergence of the class of wealthy people. They, in turn, require a special apparatus to protect their interests and maintain influence on their fellow tribesmen. Undoubtedly, this phenomenon took place, but not only it contributed to the emergence of the state. There is also a theory according to which a new type of organization of society became a consequence of the need to control and distribute resources, a kind of supreme manager of economic objects, in order to develop them effectively, this way of organizing the state is most applicable to Ancient Egypt, where the irrigation system was the main economic object.
Criteria for their appearance
When and why did the first states arise? This is a natural process that took place everywhere, but at different periods. In ancient times, the basis of life for all people was farming and cattle breeding. For it to develop successfully, it was necessary to have appropriate climatic conditions. Therefore, the ancient people settled mainly along the banks of large rivers, which allowed them to fully meet the needs of people in this important resource. Of particular importance was the location of the source of water: the more to the south it is located, the warmer the climate and, accordingly, the more favorable opportunities for agriculture. Here you can harvest more than once, as in most parts of the world, but several times a year. This gave the peoples living in these regions an undoubted advantage in the development of means of livelihood and obtaining surplus product.
The oldest regions of state construction
Mesopotamia, or Mesopotamia, is a very favorable region for farming, a mild, warm climate, excellent location and the presence of two large rivers in Western Asia - the Tigris and Euphrates - provided the necessary amount of water for the development of the irrigation system and irrigation land use. The people inhabiting these lands were less dependent on the vagaries of the weather, so they could get stable and rich harvests. Approximately the same situation developed in the valley of the largest river in Africa - the Nile. But in order to build irrigation and irrigation complexes, it was necessary to organize the collective work of a large number of people; otherwise, it was simply impossible to create effective farming. So, the first prototypes of state formations originate, and this is where the first states appeared, but these, strictly speaking, were not yet quite state formations. These were their embryos, from which the most ancient countries of the world were subsequently formed.
Peripetia of socio-economic and political components in ancient countries
The city-states arising in these territories begin to control a strictly defined area. Relations between neighbors were always tense and often led to conflicts. Many independent associations hampered the economic development of this region and the stronger rulers were aware of this, so gradually they try to subjugate a large territory to their authority, in which they establish a uniform order. According to this scheme, two strong and large kingdoms appear in the Nile Valley - Northern, or Upper, Egypt and Southern, or Lower, Egypt. The rulers of both kingdoms had a fairly strong power and army. However, luck smiled upon the king of Upper Egypt, in a fierce struggle, he defeated his southern rival, and around 3118, he conquered the Lower Egyptian kingdom, and Mina became the first pharaoh of a unified Egypt and the founder of the state, which is why the first states appeared.
Egypt is the first state
Now all the fruitful resources of the Nile were concentrated in the hands of one ruler, all the conditions appeared for the development of a unified state system of irrigated agriculture, and now the one who controlled it possessed considerable material resources. The weakening fragmentation of the country was replaced by a strong, united state, and the further development of Egypt perfectly demonstrates all the positive aspects of this process. For many years, this country has dominated the entire Middle East region. Another favorable area of the Earth, Mesopotamia, could not overcome the centrifugal forces, the city-states that existed here could not unite under the authority of a single monarch. Therefore, constant conflicts destabilized the political and economic situation, which enabled Egypt to get ahead, and soon the Sumerian states fell into the sphere of influence of the Egyptian state, and then other strong states of the region. And it is not possible to say which state appeared first with chronological accuracy, therefore Egypt is considered the first state of the planet.
Theories of the genesis of political entities
The most objective theory on the question of when and why the first states appeared was that according to which social differentiation was already formed, a fairly stable social structure of society appeared, and the state that is formed as a result of these processes and phenomena is only a pattern designed to provide the necessary stability. the whole social system. That is why and why the first states appeared. This path applies to all power relations in the history of mankind. But the reasons for the emergence of the state are much more, it can be a hostile environment, which contributes to the consolidation of society, strengthening the role of the individual, in which the ruler acts. Also a big role is played by borrowing from the surrounding more developed nations. The religious-ideological component also contributes to this; it suffices to recall Muhammad, the founder of the new religion of Islam, and the significance it has played in the formation of the Arab Caliphate. Therefore, the first states appeared as a result of a set of conditions, but the main criterion was the level of economic development.
The first states were mainly based on power, power always implies submission. And in the conditions of the ancient world, it was the only way to preserve vast territories, often inhabited by very different and unlike tribes. Therefore, many states arose as peculiar organizations for fruitful development, but did not interfere in local affairs, requiring only the fulfillment of certain duties and submission. Often it was of a formal nature, because of this, the first states were extremely unstable.