Lexical analysis of the word - what is it?
It is necessary to find out the meaning of the word, whether it is ambiguous, find synonyms, homonyms and antonyms for this word, determine whether the word is obsolete, whether it is Russian or borrowed from another language, and also what type of vocabulary this word belongs to.
Lexical analysis is, in other words, the decomposition of a word into lexical elements. The first thing to do for lexical analysis is to reveal in the word a polysemy or uniqueness (direct, figurative meaning). Also
Lexical analysis of the word implies the analysis of a specific word as a lexical unit of language (produced using dictionaries of the Russian language: explanatory, phraseological, homonyms, synonyms, antonyms).
The lexical word parsing scheme includes the following items:
Scheme of parsing:
- The lexical meaning of the word in this context (in the sentence)
- single-valued or multi-valued word (how many meanings of a word)
- in what sense is used (in direct or figurative)
- Does it have homonyms (different words in meaning but identical in sounding and spelling)
- does it have synonyms (similar in meaning to another word)
- Does antonyms (the opposite in meaning of the word)
- originally Russian or borrowed (you can see it in the dictionary of foreign languages)
- common or not (dialect, special)
- enters active or passive vocabulary
- in which style of speech is predominantly used
Lexical analysis words is conducted using linguistic dictionaries - an explanatory, phraseological dictionary, as well as dictionaries of antonyms, synonyms and homonyms.
The analysis of the word occurs according to a specific scheme
- First, the lexical meaning of a given word is determined in a specific context.
- If there are multiple word values, you must specify different values.
- It is established, in what sense the word is used - in direct or portable (TYPE of lexical meaning.
- If the word is used in a figurative sense, we define the TYPE of the portable value.
- A series of synonyms is constructed (precisely for this meaning of the word)
- An anthymic pair is selected.
- The origin of the word is determined from the Russian language, or it is borrowed from foreign languages.
- It is established whether the given word refers to common words or to restricted vocabulary.
- It is determined whether the word is outdated or more modern.
- It is indicated whether the word belongs to the composition of phraseological units, whether it is a part of it.
It is best to show the lexical analysis of a word in a specific example.
We disassemble the expression "old friend"; from the saying "Old friend is better than the new two"; the points.
- The old friend means "not a new, but a long-existing friend".
- The word quot; oldquot; has several meanings. a) reached old age, existing long ago, for a long time (for example - "old man"); b) not new, but old, damaged by time (when talking about a thing - for example, "old suitcase"); c) not new, but well-known or long-familiar (about events, fairy tales, anecdotes, etc. - "old anecdote"); d) ancient, existing for a very long time (about works of art - for example, "old picture"); e) the previous one, the previous one (for example, about a profession, work - "changed" the old work to a new one;).
- The meaning of the word in which it is used in the sentence is direct.
- A synonym is old, past.
- The antonym is a new one.
- The origin of the word is originally Russian.
- The word is common, it is used in all speech styles.
- The word is not obsolete, but is part of the active vocabulary.
- The word is used as part of phraseological units - for example, "the old horse of the furrow does not spoil;"; "the old crows in vain do not croak";
Lexical parsing of a word is the analysis of the word as a unit of the Russian language. This analysis is performed according to a specific scheme, which includes ten items.
Consider this plan for a specific example.
Let's perform the lexical analysis of the word "Water";
1) The lexical meaning of a word.
In general, water is the most common liquid on our planet.
2) Does the word have several meanings, if any, which ones.
This word has several meanings: the first is fluid, the second is superfluous words in the text, which have no special semantic meaning and make it difficult to perceive.
3) The meaning of the word is direct or portable.
If, in the context of the analysis of a text or an utterance, that is a portable value, in other cases - a direct value.
4) The type of portable value.
If we are talking about water in the text, then this is a metaphor.
Land, earth, stone, desert.
7) The origin of the word is Russian or borrowed.
Borrowed, from the Latin language.
8) The word is common or it refers to the vocabulary of limited use.
quot; Waterquot; This is a widely used word, it is commonly used.
9) The word is obsolete or modern.
This word is modern.
10) Determine the belonging of a word to phraseological units.
With the word "Water"; there are many phraseological units.
"Water in the mouth scored"; - when a person does not want to talk.
"Do not spill water"; - Strong intimacy.
Like a fish in the water; - to feel yourself confident.
"To carry water in a sieve"; - it's useless to waste your time on anything.
A lexical analysis of the word may be needed in the study of such a section of the Russian language as vocabulary and assignments on it. Lexical parsing of the word: 1. definition of the uniqueness and ambiguity of the word 2. which means the word in this 3 text. are there synonyms, 4. anonyms 5. Whether the word is borrowed, or "its" 6. whether the word is part of the phraseology, 7. whether there is a word homonym 8. Is the word obsolete (in addition, you can specify the word-historicism or archaism.
At school, we often made a lexical analysis of a word orally. The parsing scheme includes the following steps:
- Meaning of the word. The word is usually taken from some context. For example, students read the text, and the teacher asks Ivanov to parse the word he read. He must explain his meaning in this sentence.
- In addition to the meaning in the context, Ivanov must specify other values.
- He must define the meaning of the word Portable or Direct.
- In the event that it is portable, Ivanov should also explain its meaning.
- Next, he selects synonyms.
- Then - antonyms.
- Determines the origin of the word: Russian or non-Russian.
- Concludes: the word is used in modern speech or is already outdated.
- Looks for phraseological units with this word in context.
A lexical analysis is an analysis of the word uniqueness-polysemy of a word, such as its lexical meaning in this context, synonyms, antonyms, the origin of the word. The order in which they place the current there is first defined by the meaning of the word, polysemantic, the origin of the word, the sphere of the use of the word, all this must be done with the help of dictionaries .
Lexical analysis of the word implies the analysis of the word as a unit of the Russian language, while it is necessary to determine the following characteristics of the word:
Is the word unambiguous or polysemantic,
What type of lexical meaning of a word in a particular context,
What are the synonyms of the word,
What words have antonyms,
What is the origin of this word,
Whether this word belongs to a vocabulary that is limited in its use or a word from common vocabulary,
What are the words of phraseological links.
To properly determine all these characteristics for lexical analysis, linguistic dictionaries are used (explanatory, phraseological, dictionaries of antonyms, synonyms and homonyms).
Here is the scheme of the lexical analysis of the word: