Alexander II was the All-Russian emperor, the Polish king and Grand Prince of Finland in the period from 1855 to 1881 year. He came from the Romanov dynasty.
I remember Alexander II as an outstanding innovator who carried out the liberal reforms of 60-70 of the 19 century. Historians have argued about whether they have improved or worsened the socio-economic and political situation in our country. But the role of the emperor is difficult to overestimate. No wonder in Russian historiography, he is known as Alexander the Liberator. Such an honorary title of ruler received for the abolition of serfdom. Alexander II was killed as a result of a terrorist act, responsibility for which the Narodnaya Volya activists claimed.
In 1864, the most important document was published, which largely changed the justice system in Russia. It was a Judicial Statute. It was in it that the liberal reforms of the 60-70s of the 19th century appeared very clearly. This statute became the basis of a unified system of courts, whose activities would henceforth be based on the principle of equality of all sections of the population before the law. Now the meetings, at which both civil and criminal cases were considered, became public, and their result was to be published in print media. The parties to the litigation received the right to use the services of a lawyer with a higher legal education and not in the public service.
Despite the significant innovations aimed at strengthening the capitalist system, the liberal reforms of 60-70 of the 19 for centuries remained remnants of serfdom. For the peasants, specialized volost courts were created, which as punishment could be appointed and beaten. If political processes were considered, then administrative repression was inevitable, even if the verdict was acquittal.
Alexander II was aware of the need to make changes in the system of local government. The liberal reforms of the 60-70-ies led to the creation of elective territorial bodies. They had to deal with issues related to taxation, medical care, primary education, financing, etc. Elections to county and district councils were held in two stages and provided most of the seats in them to the nobles. Peasants were assigned a minor role in solving local issues. This situation continued until the end of the 19 century. An insignificant change in proportions was achieved by joining the governing bodies of the kulaks and merchants, who came from the peasant environment.
Zemstvos were elected for four years. They dealt with local government issues. In any cases affecting the interests of the peasants, the decision was made in favor of the landlords.
Touched change and the army. The 60-70 liberal reforms of the 19 century were dictated by the need to urgently modernize military mechanisms. Supervised the transformations D. A. Milyutin. The reform took place in several stages. At first, the whole country was divided into military districts. For this was issued a number of documents. The central act was the regulation on universal conscription signed by the emperor in 1862. He replaced the recruitment in the army with general mobilization, regardless of classes. The main objective of the reform was to reduce the number of soldiers in peacetime and the possibility of their quick collection in the event of an unexpected start of hostilities.
As a result of transformations, the following results were achieved:
- An extensive network of military and cadet schools was created in which representatives of all classes were engaged.
- Army strength declined by 40%.
- The main headquarters and military districts were founded.
- The tradition of corporal punishment for the slightest offense was abolished in the army.
- Global rearmament.
Serfdom during the reign of Alexander the Second has almost become obsolete. The Russian Empire conducted liberal reforms 60-70. XIX century with the main goal to create a more developed and civilized state. It was impossible not to affect the most important sphere of social life. Peasant unrest was becoming stronger, they became especially acute after the grueling Crimean War. The state appealed to this segment of the population for support during the hostilities. The peasants were sure that their release from landlord arbitrariness would be a reward for this, but their hopes were not justified. Riots flared up more and more often. If in 1855, they were 56, then in 1856, their number exceeded 700.
Alexander II ordered the creation of a specialized committee on peasant affairs, which included 11 people. In the summer of 1858, a reform project was presented. He assumed the organization of committees in the field, which would include the most authoritative representatives of the nobility. They were given the right to amend the draft.
The main principle on which the 60-70 19 liberal reforms were based on serfdom was the recognition of the personal independence of all subjects of the Russian Empire. Nevertheless, landlords remained full owners and owners of land on which the peasants worked. But the latter got the opportunity over time to redeem the plot on which they worked, along with outbuildings and residential premises. The project caused a wave of indignation from both the landlords and the peasants. The latter were against landless liberation, arguing that "you will not be full fed."
Fearing the aggravation of the situation with the peasant revolts, the government is making significant concessions. The new reform project was more radical. The peasants were given personal freedom and a piece of land in permanent possession with the subsequent right of redemption. To this end, a program of concessional lending was developed.
19.02.1861, the emperor signed a manifesto that legislated the innovations. After that, normative acts were adopted, which settled in detail the issues that arose during the implementation of the reform. After serfdom was abolished, the following results were achieved:
- The peasants received personal independence, as well as the opportunity to dispose of all their property at will.
- The landowners remained full owners of their land, but were obliged to give certain land to the former serfs.
- For the use of leased land, peasants had to pay dues, which could not be waived for nine years.
- The sizes of corvee and allotment were recorded in special letters, which were checked by intermediary bodies.
- The peasants could eventually buy their land in consultation with the landlord.
Changed and learning system. Real schools were created, in which, unlike standard gymnasiums, emphasis was placed on mathematics and natural sciences. In 1868, the only higher courses for women at that time began to function in Moscow, which was a major breakthrough with regard to gender equality.
In addition to all of the above, the changes affected many other spheres of life. So, the rights of the Jews were significantly expanded. They were allowed to move freely throughout Russia. Intellectuals, doctors, lawyers and craftsmen received the right to move and work in their specialty.
Examines in detail the liberal reforms of 60-70-s of the XIX century 8-grade high school.