History knows several cult personalities who are namesakes by name, are engaged in one field of activity, and yet, radically change the course of history in different ways.
Patriarch Filaret, whose years of life coincided with a period of major social upheavals, is one of the most controversial figures in Russian history, whose actions and historical significance for all of Russia are difficult to assess impartially. Nevertheless, this man significantly changed the course of political and social events, primarily acting in the interests of his family, and ensuring the Romanov dynasty a firm position on the throne.
Throughout his life, Patriarch Filaret Romanov - in the world of Fyodor Nikitovich - experienced constant career and status ups, and the following falls. Being a non-religious man, but by chance who took the post of Metropolitan, he continuously maintained contact with the highest Moscow clergy, creating a righteous and honorable image for himself, corresponding to the status of the Third Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia. This talented, powerful, ambitious man could not help but remain in the annals of history.
His namesake for a monastic name, self-proclaimed as a result of the split of the Russian Orthodox Church, Patriarch of Kiev Filaret, in the world Mikhail Denisenko, is known to the uninitiated as an ardent supporter of Ukrainian identity. The main result of the activity of Patriarch Filaret is the creation of an independent Ukrainian Orthodox Church and public support for military operations in the south-east of Ukraine. He publicly expressed his negative attitude towards Putin after the annexation of the Crimea. Patriarch Filaret, Ukraine, in whose opinion, should be independent and autonomous, is also known for his harsh remarks about other officials.
Anyway, speaking in favor of Ukraine’s independence, Filaret defends the interests of the majority of citizens of this country, therefore there is no search for sacred truths in this text, but there is a set of facts allowing to get acquainted with the rich life of this spiritual leader.
Patriarch Filaret Romanov: Pedigree and Family
The life of the priest was not easy. The biography of Patriarch Philaret is notable for the fact that he was the nephew of Anastasia Zakharina-Yuryeva, the first wife of Tsar Ivan the Terrible. Thus, the clan of the Romanovs joined the dynasty of the Russian tsars. The clan of Anastasia Zakharina (they are also Yurievs, Koshkins) was in the service of Moscow princes from the 14 century. The importance of this family in the country's rule increased after 1584, when Ivan the Terrible left, with his young son Theodore, guardian of the boyar Nikita Romanovich, brother of the deceased Anastasia, whose good fame became the basis of the popularity of the Romanovs.
The relationship between the Godunovs and the Romanovs was not hostile. On the contrary, during the wedding ceremony for the kingdom, Boris gave Romanov many privileges, but this could not soften the growing struggle for the royal throne.
Youth and youth
Fedor Nikitovich Romanov was born in 1553 year. Having a secular practical mindset, Fedor Nikitovich never sought to take any priesthood. In his youth, he was one of the most famous Moscow dandies.
Received an excellent education, perfectly combining the love of books and the love of secular dresses, Fyodor Nikitovich learned even the Latin language by resorting to the help of Latin books specially written for him. According to the memoirs of contemporaries, he was an inquisitive, beautiful, dexterous and friendly young man.
Metropolitan of Rostov
Being one of the main rivals of Boris Godunov, Fedor Nikitovich, along with the rest of the Romanovs and many other boyar families in 1600, was subjected to royal disgrace. The beginning of this process put a false denunciation. Fyodor was forcibly tonsured as a monk and exiled to the north of the principality, to the Antoniyev-Siya monastery, located 90 kilometers from Kholmogory. In the old days monastic vowing was one of the means of depriving a person of political power. Along with receiving a new name, Filaret Romanov also received the sympathy and support of compatriots as a royal descendant and the legitimate Tsar of Russia sent into exile.
In the monastery, the future metropolitan was under strict supervision - the bailiffs stopped any of his independent actions, while constantly complaining to Moscow about his sharp temper. But most of all, Filaret Romanov missed his family.
30 June 1605 of the year after the coup d'état Filaret was returned to Moscow with the honors as a relative of the alleged tsar False Dmitry, and in 1606 he became the metropolitan of Rostov. After the overthrow of the impostor in 1606, Philaret, being in Moscow, was sent to Uglich for the body of Tsarevich Dmitry Ioannovich at the direction of the new Tsar Vasily Ivanovich. While Filaret was in Uglich, Shuisky elevated Moscow Patriarch Metropolitan Hermogenes to the post of patriarch, and Fyodor Ivanovich went to the department assigned to him under his protectorate in Rostov Veliky, where he stayed until 1608.
Owing to the dislike of the population for Shuisky, and the appearance on the political arena of a new impostor, the military forces of the rebels approached Moscow itself. The Patriarch of Moscow urgently sent letters of acknowledgment to the state in which he ordered the archpastors to pray for Tsar Basil and described the course of events. Patriarch Filaret, whose brief biography was already full of fateful facts, spoke about global state upheavals, the Bolotnikov uprising, the gangs of the “Tushino thief”, from which he, remaining loyal to the Tsar, suffered himself later. In 1608, the False Dmitry Second troops took Rostov, ravaged the city, and Patriarch Filaret was captured and taken to the Tushino camp with humiliation.
In Tushino, the impostor and his people began to show Fyodor appropriate honors and were given the title "Filaret, Patriarch of Moscow". There is no doubt that Fyodor Nikitovich himself did not value this position at all - in Tushino he was sneered and held by force. The writings that have come down to us from 1608 - 1610 do not give the right to say that Filaret (Moscow Patriarch) had any relation to church and political affairs - on the contrary, Hermogenes - the legitimate Moscow Patriarch - considered him a victim of the situation.
In March, 1610, after the collapse of the Tushino camp, Filaret was captured by the Poles and taken to the Iosif Volokolamsky Monastery, but soon escaped from there with the support of the detachment Grigory Voluev, and, returning to Moscow, was in former honor at the Moscow Diocese.
In September 1610, Filaret, as well as Prince Golitsyn, as part of the "Great Embassy", moved from Moscow near Smolensk to meet with King Sigismund, after which he sent ambassadors to Poland as prisoners. In captivity, Filaret spent as much as eight years, and was exchanged in 1619, and then immediately taken to Moscow, where his own people-elect son Mikhail Fyodorovich was already sitting on the throne in order to take the empty seat of the Moscow Patriarch. In 1619, on June 24, in the Assumption Cathedral, he was ordained as “Philaret Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia”. Now Filaret, called the royal title "Great Sovereign", began to manage equally the church and the state.
Thus, in Moscow, a dual power was established for a period of 14 years in which only the king and the Zemsky Sobor had the highest governmental authority, and the letters of the father-patriarch to the son-sovereign reveal the full power of influence of the patriarch on the conduct of public affairs, and fully describe the activities of patriarch Philaret .
Historians know the condemnation of the year 1619, that "how to arrange the land," which was created by the report "articles" of the patriarch. It correctly assessed the uneven material and property status of the population in different parts of the kingdom, therefore, such measures were taken as:
- the proper dispensation of service from the estates;
- compiling accurate cadastral inventories of lands and on their basis the achievement of the correctness of tax-paying taxation;
- making known both the treasury’s cash and its future resources for determining income and expenses;
- taking effective measures to eradicate administrative offenses that impede the establishment of state and social order in the country.
All these introductions pursued a single goal — an increase in government funds in the easiest and right way for the population.
Fyodor Nikitovich also patronized typography and also edited Old Russian texts for errors.
Church Governance Reforms
The events of the life of the patriarch polished out of him a political businessman and a fine diplomat. Interests to strengthen the dynastic power stimulated him to direct all his forces to manage the affairs of the state in which he was capable and tactful leader. But, being devoid of theological education, he was especially restrained and cautious in church affairs. In this area, Filaret was concerned about the protection of his orthodoxy and looked out for the main danger behind the Polish-Lithuanian border. For the rest, he followed the immediate needs of the church and never took steps forward. Thus, the political activity of Filaret was more fruitful and more active than the church. From 1619 to 1633, state power grew stronger under him, and the Romanov dynasty gained support from the general public, and this is the historical merit of Fyodor Nikitovich.
On all matters related to religion and church dispensation, he preferred to consult with the Moscow clergy than earned himself considerable glory among her.
Family and Children
Fedor married the daughter of a poor nobleman from Kostroma, Ksenia Ivanovna Shestova. They had six children. After the disgrace of Boris Godunov to the family of Fyodor Nikitovich, Ksenia Ivanovna was forcibly tonsured as a nun under the name of Martha and sent to the Zaonezhsky Tolvui graveyard. The son Michael and daughter Tatyana along with the males Nastasya and Marfa Nikitichny were taken to the village of Kliny, located in Yuryevsk district.
Филарет Патриарх всея Руси сразу после возвращения домой из польского плена и проведения кампании по возведению на престол своего сына Михаила, превратился в расчётливого и опального регента.
The death of Patriarch Philaret 1 in October 1633 of the year put an end to the dual power in the state and finally established on the throne the Romanov family, who reigned until the very 1917 of the year.
Historical significance of Filaret
Being the regent of the minor Tsar Michael and the de facto ruler of the country, Patriarch Filaret on his own behalf signed state letters and also had the title of Great Sovereign.
Speaking of Patriarch Filaret, historians for the most part speak of his patronage of typography. From 1621, the clerks of the Ambassadorial Order, specifically for the Tsar, began to produce the first Russian newspaper, Vestovye Pis'ty.
The patriarch understood the value and favored the development of the arms and metallurgical industry. Therefore, Andrei Vinius received permission from Tsar Mikhail Fedorovich in 1632 to establish the first iron-smelting, iron and metal factories near Tula, the first in Russia.
Patriarch Filaret of Kiev: Birth and Family
This priest is from Ukraine. Filaret the Patriarch of Kiev, in the world, Mikhail Antonovich Denisenko, was born in the miner’s family 1 January 1929. The place of birth indicates the village of Blagodatnoe, located in Amvrosievsky district of Donetsk region.
Despite the mandatory requirements of a vow of celibacy, according to media reports, Filaret publicly openly lived with his family - his wife Evgenia Petrovna Rodionova, who died in 1998, is mentioned, and three children, the daughter Vera and Lyubov, as well as son Andrey.
Study, monastery and the adoption of monasticism
In 1946, Denisenko graduated from high school, and in 1948, he graduated from Odessa Theological Seminary and was accepted into the Moscow Theological Academy. In January, 1950, he, being a second year student, took monastic vows, taking the name Philaret. In the spring, he was ordained a hierodeacon, and in 1952 he was ordained a hieromonk.
Occupied posts and titles
In 1952, Denisenko received a Ph.D. in theology and remained at the Moscow Theological Seminary to teach the Holy Scriptures of the New Testament. At the same time, Filaret was acting dean of the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. The rank of assistant professor received in March 1954.
In August, 1956, Philaret, being abbot, became an inspector of the Saratov Theological Seminary, then of the Kiev Theological Seminary. He began managing the affairs of the Ukrainian Exarchate in 1960, being in the rank of archimandrite.
In 1961, Denisenko was appointed rector of the Russian Orthodox Church in Alexandria by the Patriarchate of Alexandria.
In 1962, Philaret received the rank of Bishop of Lugskii, Vicar of the Leningrad Diocese. At the same time, he was appointed governor of the Riga diocese; in the summer of 1962, by the vicar of the Central European Exarchate; in November of that year, he became the Bishop of Vienna and Austria.
In 1964, Filaret was appointed vicar at the Moscow Diocese and, as bishop of Dmitrov, he became rector of the Moscow Theological Academy and Seminary.
A member of the Holy Synod elevated him to the rank of archbishop of Kiev and Galicia in 1966. In December of the same year, Filaret became the head of the Kiev Department for External Church Relations of the Moscow Patriarchate. At that time, he, as part of the delegations of the Moscow Patriarchate, the Russian Orthodox Church and the Ukrainian Exarchate, repeatedly made trips abroad, participating in congresses, conferences and assemblies. In 1979, Filaret received an award in the form of the Order of Friendship of Peoples, and in 1988, the Order of the Red Banner of Labor for active peacemaking activities.
After the death of Pimen, the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia, in the spring of 1990, Filaret became the locum tenens of the Patriarchal Throne and one of the most likely candidates for patriarchs, for which the local council was called. In June, 1990, the cathedral, elected the new head of the Russian Orthodox Church - Metropolitan Alexy II. However, traditionally it was Filaret Patriarch of Kiev and All Ukraine who was considered the next most important bishop of the Russian Church and the most influential permanent member of the Holy Synod.
Filaret as a spiritual figure of the UOC
В этот период при поддержке Леонида Кравчука Филарет начинает активную деятельность, направленную на автономизацию Украинской церкви. СМИ рассказывают о начале их "дружеских" отношений ещё в период работы Денисенко в ЦК Компартии Украины. С провозглашением независимости Украины в 1991 году, Кравчук всячески стимулировал процесс создания автономной церкви, имеющей основу канонической УПЦ - у Украинской автокефальной православной церкви (УАПЦ) и униатов не было необходимой поддержки населения для обеспечения себе автономии. Подразумевалось, что каноническая автокефалия как самостоятельное объединение УПЦ вберёт в себя все православные церкви Украины и снизит уровень межконфессиональных противоречий.
In January, 1992, Filaret gathered bishops for a meeting and, with the support of the now-Ukrainian President Kravchuk, made an appeal to the patriarch, all bishops and the Holy Synod, in which he accused the ROC of deliberately delaying the process of a positive decision in the UOC autocephaly. The Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church already raised this issue in the spring of 1992, in the absence of Filaret. In response to the appeal of the Moscow Patriarchate, Filaret was charged with using the autonomy granted as a means of strengthening his power in the management of the Ukrainian Church, putting pressure on local priests to force them to support autocephaly. In the course of this dispute, the Ukrainian patriarch Filaret was accused of immoral behavior and his gross miscalculations in management and was obliged to voluntarily resign the authority of the head of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church. Filaret himself voluntarily gave the floor to the bishop that he would not obstruct the free choice of the Ukrainian church in the process of electing a new hierarch to it, but after a while he refused to part with the post of primate of the UOC. This was followed by his renunciation of the bishop's oath. Thus arose a religious schism, known in the history of Orthodoxy as the “philaret”. Filaret himself justifies his initial promise by pressure from the ROC, and therefore considers it forced.
In 1992, the Bishops' Council of the UOC was still able to dismiss Filaret from the post of the First Hierarch of the UOC and the Kiev Department. He remained in the state, but did not have the right to conduct worship services, and in June of the same year by the Judicial Act of the Bishops 'Council for human vices, blackmail, dictate, oath crime and public slander of the Bishops' Council, the division of the church, as well as for holding in a state of prohibition priesthood, Philaret was deposed from the dignity and deprived of all degrees of priesthood and rights related to being in the clergy.
In June, 1992, the supporters of Filaret assembled the Unification Council in Kiev. This marked the beginning of the creation of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church of the Kiev Patriarchate (UOC-KP) as a result of the unification of some representatives of the UOC belonging to the Moscow Patriarchate and the UAOC. In 1995, Filaret took over as patriarch.
19 February 1997, the Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church excommunicates Philaret from the church for conducting divisive activities in the inter-conciliar period.
Relationship with Russia
Filaret took the place of the most likely candidate for the post of primate of the Russian Orthodox Church, but not everyone was satisfied with his candidacy. Especially censure and indignation caused his faulty moral character, lust for power, behavior, rudeness and worldly lifestyle.
During the election of a new patriarch, the struggle of the UOC for its autonomization was greatly aggravated. And even after the Bishops' Council of the Russian Orthodox Church adopted the new situation in 1990 and granted the Ukrainian Exarchate more rights in self-government and manifestation of national traditions in the church sphere, granting independence and independence in the administration of the UOC, and to Filaret - the title of "His Beatitude Metropolitan of Kiev and All Ukraine" - he I did not stop fighting for the independence of Ukrainian religious ideology, now in the sphere of public and social life.
Patriarch Filaret considers Russia the main aggressor in the conflict in the south-east of Ukraine, arguing that Russia, as the enemy of the Ukrainian people, is doomed to defeat.
Широко известны взаимные обращения Патриарха Кирилла всея Руси и Патриарха Филарета всея Украины. В письме к украинскому архиерею московский патриарх призывал взвешенно и методично подойти к вопросу о продолжении поддержки конфликта на юго-востоке Украины, и призывал в это непростое, тревожное время объединиться всей русской церковью против тёмной стороны человеческой личности, совершая всеобщие христианские молебны. Однако в своём ответном обращении к московскому патриарху, Филарет крайне негативно отзывался о позиции РПЦ, в резкой форме говоря о невозможности единения этих церквей, и надменной позиции Московского патриарха по отношению к патриархату Киевскому.
Recently, in connection with the frequent trips of Patriarch of All Russia Kirill to the church palaces of Ukraine, Patriarch Filaret maintains a cautious distance in relations with the Russian Orthodox Church, rightly believing about the possible elimination of himself from the political arena.