ISO is an international non-governmental organization that began its existence in 1947. Its goal is to develop international standards for goods and services. Let's take a closer look at this institution - the organization itself, the need for existence - and examine the issues with which it deals.
ISO is what organization?
Today it includes 157 members from different countries (one from each). Russia joined the Council (structural unit that manages) the organization in 2007.
The scope of ISO applies to all areas, with the exception of electronics and electrical engineering, which are dealt with by the International Electrotechnical Commission. Some works are also performed in a joint mode.
The ISO consists of governing bodies and workers.
Among the first are the following organs.
- General Assembly. It consists of officials as well as delegates who are appointed by the committees.
- The Council organizes work between sessions of the General Assembly. He can send questions to the committees and assign them to solve them. Decisions are taken by a majority of all those present. Under this body are the 7 committees.
- Technical Management Bureau.
The working bodies are the following structural units.
- Technical committees. Among them: PLACO is a technical bureau that prepares proposals for planning the work of ISO. STAKO studies the scientific principles of standardization and assists the Information Council by developing the requirements of international standards. CASCO evaluates the conformity of products and services, examines the practice on this issue and analyzes it. DEVCO assists developing countries by developing guidelines for standardization. KOPOLKO - Consumer Protection Committee, is exploring the possibility of promoting them, through the introduction of the institution of standardization. REMCO, being a standard design committee, provides the organization with methodological assistance.
- Technical Advisory Groups.
Since ISO exists, standards have been developed for an international standardization organization. To date, almost 14 000 samples have been published that are compatible with different technologies and production processes. This also applies to traditional industries (agriculture, construction, consumer goods, medical equipment, etc.), and newer industries (digital coding, high-tech information, and the like).
ISO standards are developments dictated by market development. When the need arises, representatives of any industry submit an application for the development of an appropriate standard. After approval, the application is transmitted to the technical committee for further work. It includes industry representatives who have expressed a desire to develop a standard. After its approval, the draft is submitted for discussion, and then finally adopted for voting.
The most common standards are ISO 9000 and ISO 14000. Both can be used in different organizations, regardless of what kind of activity they are engaged in.
9000 and 14000 standard
For example, the ISO 9000 number is the standard that regulates quality management. In order to get it into production, they introduce appropriate technologies and management procedures aimed at meeting the needs, as well as guaranteeing the receipt of high-quality goods and services.
ISO 14000 refers to the standard for monitoring environmental safety. It is necessary to minimize the harmful effects on the environment and work to increase technically safe production.
What are these standards based on?
It should be understood that none of these standards is a guarantee of quality and safety. They merely stimulate the organization to introduce such a management system that would ensure optimum quality and ensure the best security.
When considering the ISO standard 9000, certain quality management principles are found. Managers have the right to use them to select the optimal system in the enterprise. We study them.
№ 1. Customer focus. At the same time, the organization seeks to understand the needs of its customers and try to fully satisfy them in such a way as to even exceed expectations. To this end:
- research needs;
- adjust the strategy;
- implement an optimal system for transferring information about the needs of all company employees;
- examine customer satisfaction with the product;
- establish a system of customer relations;
- try to come to a balance between consumers and others.
№ 2. Leaders organize the setting of goals and objectives, provide all possibilities for achieving them. For this, the head:
- takes into account the interests of all employees;
- sees the future of the organization;
- sets goals and objectives;
- provides a confidential atmosphere in the company;
- provides the necessary resources for training;
- stimulates employees.
№ 3. Recruitment. People are what build any activity. If employees are involved in the company's business, then it develops much more dynamically, and employees reveal their abilities more. For this purpose, in accordance with international standards, conditions are ensured under which:
- employees are aware of their contribution in the performance of duties;
- understand all the limitations;
- bear responsibility;
- try to improve their qualifications;
- share their experience and knowledge;
- discuss pressing issues.
№ 4. The company tries to set the approach to the working process in such a way that the main thing becomes the main thing. For this, the following conditions are provided:
- determines the activities necessary to achieve the result;
- records are kept for the operation and responsibility of employees;
- attention is paid to the circumstances that affect the main activities;
- effects are evaluated.
№ 5. Managerial approach. Optimum efficiency in this case is achieved through a systemic nature. To do this, the company conducts the following actions:
- working on structural issues;
- improves intrasystem interdependence;
- distributes responsibility fairly;
- conducts the executive order from the very beginning to the end;
- improves work mechanisms by evaluating activities.
№ 6. The steps to continual improvement are as follows:
- constantly improve the quality of the product or service provided;
- conduct educational work with staff;
- improve the characteristics and work on this of each link of the company;
- evaluate the steps received;
- highlight the results.
№ 7. The actual approach. This principle includes the following steps:
- verification of information;
- ensuring its availability;
- making decisions and actions based on it.
№ 8. Mutually beneficial relationship. In this case, the following is necessary:
- setting a balance between short-term and long-term goals;
- pooling resources;
- identifying and working with key partners;
- information exchange;
- building joint plans.
ISO 9000 developed in 1994 year. It consists of a series of 9001, 9002, 9003. And later 9001: 2000 and 9004: 2000 were added to them. Currently, there are sixteen standards from which companies choose the most suitable for themselves.
The need for organization
Certification is mandatory and voluntary. The quality management system is a rather complicated process, and not all companies need it. These international valuation standards are suitable for companies seeking to:
- improve the quality of the product;
- bring the management system to the optimal level;
- systematize this guide;
- improve the image;
- achieve advantages from competitors;
- facilitate licensing;
- attract serious partners to the business;
- receive orders from foreign companies.
Preparation for certification
The managerial process should be set in accordance with established international standards. An assessment of the existing system is sometimes sufficient, and there is no need to introduce a new one. Enough to work hard on structural changes. For some organizations, a thorough restructuring is required, and for others, only individual changes are required. The system is built in accordance with specific tasks. The companies carry out reforms independently or invite consulting organizations for this.
Stages on the implementation of management standards are as follows.
- Setting goals.
- Identify expectations.
- Studying standards.
- The choice of one of them.
- Diagnosis of the management system.
- Identify the processes that affect the supply of products to consumers.
- Development of planned work.
- The embodiment of them in life.
- System evaluation is independent.
- Conduct an audit to obtain an ISO certificate.
- Continuing to improve the management system.
It is necessary to understand that the ISO organization does not conduct test work and does not issue an ISO certificate. She develops samples. And all the relevant procedures for testing them at international quality standards are conducted by accredited organizations. This is done in the country where the company has a commercial interest.
GOST and ISO
The basis for mandatory certification in Russia are GOST standards. ISO, as mentioned above, is the basis for voluntary certification. However, a system focused on international standards was created to harmonize technical regulation. GOST ISO is chosen by those companies that are focused not only on the domestic domestic market, but also on the external one. Some believe that it is this approach that forms a more correct position in commercial organizations.