The cathedral is usually called the main temple of the city. At the same time, as a rule, there should be a pulpit in it - an exalted place from which the bishop (clergyman of the highest, third degree of priesthood) speaks during the service.
History of the name
But Moscow is a very big city, and, naturally, it has more than one cathedral church. Here and Yelokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow, having the second name of the Epiphany Cathedral in Elokhove, is included in the top twenty places of worship of this type. According to legend, on the site of the temple before (in the XIV century) there was an alder forest, the Olkhovets brook flowed, and there was a village called Elokh (a word with one root with alder). To this day, the street and Alder Lane have been preserved in this area. These places are famous for the birth of the holy fool Basil the Blessed or Basil Nagy here in 1469, a figure so ambiguous and significant that the coffin of the saint who died in 1552 (even the number is known - 2 of August) was carried by Ivan the Terrible with the boyars, and the metropolitan was funeral of the fool himself Macarius.
Yelokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow, located in the Basmanny district on Spartakovskaya Street, belonging to the Central Administrative District, has its glorious history. A. Pushkin was baptized in it (1799 year, on the 8-th day of birth). From 1938, the cathedral becomes cathedral, and from 1945 to 1991, the patriarchal year (now, after the transfer of the Patriarch of All Russia to the Assumption Cathedral in the Kremlin, the Epiphany Cathedral remains the Moscow Patriarchate's department). It was here in 1943, 1945, 1971 and 1990 that the newly elected primates of the church (bishops) were put into the pulpit. The rite of enthronement occurs during the liturgy. The hierarch is dressed in clothes corresponding to his rank. In 1925, on the feast of the Liturgy, Patriarch Tikhon served in the cathedral. Yelokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow is famous for the fact that Patriarch Sergius was buried in the northern Nikolsky chapel, after the funeral service in May 1944 of the year. The place of his burial is decorated with a tombstone made of marble. The author is the famous A. V. Shchusev. Alexy II, 15 PM, is also buried in this cathedral - in the southern Annunciation chapel, in 2008 year.
Muscovites' favorite cathedral
Елоховский собор в Москве не только знаменит, он и очень любим москвичами, его часто называют «собор моего детства». Это происходит еще и потому, что он никогда не закрывался. Беды темных лет гонения церкви обошли его стороной, поэтому многих маленьких жителей столицы их бабушки возили сюда издалека, и для них собор стал родным.
It should be noted that during the years of the war, the Epiphany Yehokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow transferred 835,9 thousand rubles for defense, and 535,1 for gifts to soldiers. How much he had to move! They wanted to demolish it in order to expand Yelokhinsky Square, to make it a Rare Book House or a cinema. But in the time of any misfortunes, even in the days of revolutions and wars, the Yelokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow did not close the door. The baptism of the Lord or the feast of the Epiphany is the day when the temple in Elokhovo was consecrated. It is celebrated on January 18 and is the altar for the cathedral.
The history of the temple is traditional - first in 1698, the Elokhovtsy built a wooden village church. Under Peter I (1717-1722), it was rebuilt into a stone temple. In 1722-1731, under the guardianship of Princess Praskovya Ivanovna, a chapel was built in honor of the Annunciation of the Most Holy Theotokos. Many legends are associated with the great king, one of them says that he personally donated a stone for the construction of this temple. And in 1790-1792, the church is expanded by the addition of a refectory with two side-chambers (the chapel of the Annunciation is being altered in honor of St. Nicholas) and the bell tower. In the following years, Moscow was expanding intensively, and the temple, which was now close to the city center, again becomes small for an increased number of parishioners.
Founding period in the construction of the cathedral
And now, in 1837, on the site of the dismantled Yelokhovsky church, a new spacious church began to be built according to the design of architect Evgraf Tyurin (1796-1872). This architect is known for completing work on the country residence of Count Yusupov in Arkhangelskoye with O. I. Bove. He took part in the construction of the Moscow University on Mokhovaya and the university church in the name of the martyr Tatiana. However, due to lack of funds, construction work was carried out for a long time, but services in the unfinished walls were always coped. By 1845, the traditional for Orthodoxy cube of the main building of the temple, crowned with five domes, was erected. The cathedral was erected in the style of high late classicism and in the Empire style. In order for the work to be completed, the merchant of 2 Guild, V. I. Shchapov, who became an honorary citizen of Moscow, donated a very large amount of money - one third of the total cost of the work. And only in 1853, the church was consecrated by Philaret, Metropolitan of Moscow and Kolomna.
Construction work continued further - in 1889, the dome and attic (a decorative wall located above the cornice) were erected above the refectory. According to the design of Zykov, only she and the first tier of the bell tower were to remain from the cathedral. After reconstruction, the cathedral became one of the most monumental religious buildings in Moscow. The next update of the interiors took place in 1912 year - the cathedral was re-colored. The gilded iconostasis lived to this day. A bell was bought from the Bolshoi Theater and they replaced it with a cracked one.
A very serious restoration of the cathedral began in the 1969 year, after the election of the elder Kapchuk N. S., who headed the repair and restoration work, which was delayed for 20 years. As a result, a lot has been done: gold leaf has been completely replaced, and bronze fences have been installed on the pulpit and the tower. All floors are replaced with marble. А под алтарем и солеями (в христианских храмах - возвышение пола перед иконостасом или алтарной преградой) пол поднят. Промыта настенная живопись, написаны новые витражи, построены реставрационные мастерские. Всего не перечислить. Собор прекрасен и достойно вписывается в обновленный центр Москвы. Но мнения о проведенной реставрации самые разные – от восторженных похвал до оценки «самоварщина». Елоховский собор в Москве (фото в полной мере передает необыкновенную красоту и пропорциональность одного из центральных культовых сооружений столицы) является национальным памятником архитектуры.
To this day, Matthew Stadnyuk serves as a protopresbyter in the cathedral, erected in this dignity in 1978. Using the love of ministers and parishioners, he does everything to ensure that the glory of the cathedral does not diminish, that thousands of people attend the services, so that every guest of the capital would seek to visit Yelokhovsky Cathedral in Moscow, whose icons make him famous throughout the Christian world. This is first and foremost the legendary icon of the revered icon of the Kazan Mother of God.
К святыням собора относятся мощи и чудотворный образ Святителя Николая. Можно поклониться останкам современника и единомышленника Сергия Радонежского – Алексея, митрополита Московского, который был одним из наставников Д. Донского. «Взыскание погибших» - чтимый образ Божьей Матери - хранится в стенах Елоховского собора. Из редких списков можно назвать еще Богородичную икону «Живоносный источник», к которой обращаются за помощью в денежных вопросах. Нет москвича, который не знал бы, где находится этот знаменитый храм, или не мог бы назвать его адрес. Елоховский собор в Москве расположен на Спартаковской улице, в доме под номером 15. Совсем неподалеку находится станция московского метро Баумановская.